cause and correlation in biology a user s guide to path analysis structural equations and causal inference with r

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Cause And Correlation In Biology

Author : Bill Shipley
ISBN : 9781316539163
Genre : Science
File Size : 40. 75 MB
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Many problems in biology require an understanding of the relationships among variables in a multivariate causal context. Exploring such cause-effect relationships through a series of statistical methods, this book explains how to test causal hypotheses when randomised experiments cannot be performed. This completely revised and updated edition features detailed explanations for carrying out statistical methods using the popular and freely available R statistical language. Sections on d-sep tests, latent constructs that are common in biology, missing values, phylogenetic constraints, and multilevel models are also an important feature of this new edition. Written for biologists and using a minimum of statistical jargon, the concept of testing multivariate causal hypotheses using structural equations and path analysis is demystified. Assuming only a basic understanding of statistical analysis, this new edition is a valuable resource for both students and practising biologists.

Latent Variable Models

Author : John C. Loehlin
ISBN : 9781135614348
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 69. 99 MB
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This book introduces multiple-latent variable models by utilizing path diagrams to explain the underlying relationships in the models. This approach helps less mathematically inclined students grasp the underlying relationships between path analysis, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling more easily. A few sections of the book make use of elementary matrix algebra. An appendix on the topic is provided for those who need a review. The author maintains an informal style so as to increase the book's accessibility. Notes at the end of each chapter provide some of the more technical details. The book is not tied to a particular computer program, but special attention is paid to LISREL, EQS, AMOS, and Mx. New in the fourth edition of Latent Variable Models: *a data CD that features the correlation and covariance matrices used in the exercises; *new sections on missing data, non-normality, mediation, factorial invariance, and automating the construction of path diagrams; and *reorganization of chapters 3-7 to enhance the flow of the book and its flexibility for teaching. Intended for advanced students and researchers in the areas of social, educational, clinical, industrial, consumer, personality, and developmental psychology, sociology, political science, and marketing, some prior familiarity with correlation and regression is helpful.

Modern Phylogenetic Comparative Methods And Their Application In Evolutionary Biology

Author : László Zsolt Garamszegi
ISBN : 9783662435502
Genre : Science
File Size : 46. 68 MB
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Phylogenetic comparative approaches are powerful analytical tools for making evolutionary inferences from interspecific data and phylogenies. The phylogenetic toolkit available to evolutionary biologists is currently growing at an incredible speed, but most methodological papers are published in the specialized statistical literature and many are incomprehensible for the user community. This textbook provides an overview of several newly developed phylogenetic comparative methods that allow to investigate a broad array of questions on how phenotypic characters evolve along the branches of phylogeny and how such mechanisms shape complex animal communities and interspecific interactions. The individual chapters were written by the leading experts in the field and using a language that is accessible for practicing evolutionary biologists. The authors carefully explain the philosophy behind different methodologies and provide pointers – mostly using a dynamically developing online interface – on how these methods can be implemented in practice. These “conceptual” and “practical” materials are essential for expanding the qualification of both students and scientists, but also offer a valuable resource for educators.

Making Minds

Author : Professor Henry M. Wellman
ISBN : 9780199334933
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 28. 32 MB
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Developmental psychologists coined the term "theory of mind" to describe how we understand our shifting mental states in daily life. Over the past twenty years researchers have provided rich, provocative data showing that from an early age, children develop a sophisticated and consistent "theory of mind" by attributing their desires, beliefs, and emotions to themselves and to others. Remarkably, infants barely a few months old are able to attend closely to other humans; two-year-olds can articulate the desires and feelings of others and comfort those in distress; and three- and four-year-olds can talk about thoughts abstractly and engage in lies and trickery. This book provides a deeper examination of how "theory of mind" develops. Building on his pioneering research in The Child's Theory of Mind (1990), Henry M. Wellman reports on all that we have learned in the past twenty years with chapters on evolution and the brain bases of theory of mind, and updated explanations of theory theory and later theoretical developments, including how children conceive of extraordinary minds such as those belonging to superheroes or supernatural beings. Engaging and accessibly written, Wellman's work will appeal especially to scholars and students working in psychology, philosophy, cultural studies, and social cognition.

Coscience

Author :
ISBN : CORNELL:31924087304485
Genre : Ecology
File Size : 74. 28 MB
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Amphibian Decline

Author : Greg Linder
ISBN : 1880611554
Genre : Nature
File Size : 36. 98 MB
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Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America

Author : National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
ISBN : WISC:89099175671
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 35 MB
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Canadian Journal Of Forest Research

Author :
ISBN : UCR:31210018598159
Genre : Forests and forestry
File Size : 42. 5 MB
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Symposium

Author : Brooklyn Law School
ISBN : STANFORD:36105063770270
Genre : Evidence, Expert
File Size : 80. 21 MB
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Journal Of Experimental Biology

Author :
ISBN : NWU:35558005497181
Genre : Biology
File Size : 28. 53 MB
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