breaking rules the social and situational dynamics of young people s urban crime clarendon studies in criminology

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Breaking Rules The Social And Situational Dynamics Of Young People S Urban Crime

Author : Per-Olof H. Wikström
ISBN : 9780199592845
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 27. 90 MB
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Breaking new ground in the study of crime in urban environments, Breaking Rules examines the findings, theoretical basis, and new methodology of The Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+). This major longitudinal study investigates the role of the social environment on crime causation, involving a cohort of 700 young people from the age of 12. A particular aim of PADS+ is to employ a new theory, known as Situational ActionTheory, as well as the innovative methodology of ecometrics combined with space-time budgets to improve the study of young people's offending and its changes.

Marital Rape

Author : Kersti Yllö
ISBN : 9780190238377
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 83. 34 MB
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Rape in marriage is a global problem affecting millions of women -- it is still legal in many countries and was only criminalized in all U.S. states in 1993. In much of the world, marital rape is too often understood as an oxymoron due to the fact that the ideology of permanent consent underlies the legal and cultural definitions of sex in marriage. From Vietnam to Guatemala to South Africa and beyond, this volume examines how cultural, legal, public health, and human rights policies and practices impact intimate partner violence. While legal and cultural conceptions of marital rape vary widely -- from criminal assault to wifely duty -- this volume offers evidence from different societies that forced sex undermines the physical and psychological well-being of the women who experience it, regardless of their cultural context. Globally, the nature of marriage is changing and so are notions of individual choice, love, intimacy, and rigid gender roles. Marital Rape documents wide ranging and fluid understandings of sex, consent, and rape in marriage; such an array of perspectives demands an international and interdisciplinary approach to the study of sex and gender-based violence. This text brings together an international group of scholars from the fields of anthropology, sociology, criminology, law, public health, and human rights; their work points to the importance of understanding the lived experience of sexual violence for the design of effective and culturally sensitive public policy and practice.

Explaining Criminal Careers

Author : John F. MacLeod
ISBN : 9780199697243
Genre : Law
File Size : 62. 22 MB
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A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via www.oup.com/uk as well as the OAPEN Library platform, www.oapen.org. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license and is part of the OAPEN-UK research project. Explaining Criminal Careers presents a simple but influential theory of crime, conviction and reconviction. The assumptions of the theory are derived directly from a detailed analysis of cohort samples extracted from the Home Office Offenders Index - a unique database which contains records of all criminal (standard list) convictions in England and Wales since 1963. In particular, the theory explains the well-known Age/Crime curve. Based on the idea that there are only three types of offenders, who commit crimes at either high or low (constant) rates and have either a high or low (constant) risk of reoffending, this simple theory makes exact quantitative predictions about criminal careers and age-crime curves. Purely from the birth-rate over the second part of the 20th century, the theory accurately predicts (to within 2%) the prison population contingent on a given sentencing policy. The theory also suggests that increasing the probability of conviction after each offence is the most effective way of reducing crime, although there is a role for treatment programmes for some offenders. The authors indicate that crime is influenced by the operation of the Criminal Justice System and that offenders do not 'grow out' of crime as commonly supposed; they are persuaded to stop or decide to stop after (repeated) convictions, with a certain fraction of offenders desisting after each conviction. Simply imprisoning offenders will not reduce crime either by individual deterrence or by incapacitation. With comprehensive explanations of the formulae used and complete mathematical appendices allowing for individual interpretations and further development of the theory, Explaining Criminal Careers represents an innovative and meticulous investigation into criminal activity and the influences behind it. With clear policy implications and a wealth of original and significant discussions, this book marks a ground-breaking chapter in the criminological debate surrounding criminal careers.

Qualitative Research In Criminology

Author : Wilson R. Palacios
ISBN : 9781351495240
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 40. 71 MB
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"This volume investigates the significant role qualitative research plays in expanding and refining our understandings of crime and justice. It features seventeen original essays that discuss the relationship between methodology and theory. The result is a theoretically engaged volume that explores the approaches of qualitative scholars in the collection and treatment of data in criminological scholarship.Among the key issues addressed in the volume are methodological rigor in qualitative research; movement between method, theory building, theoretical refinement and expansion; diversity of qualitative methodologies, from classic field research to contemporary innovations; and considerations of the future of qualitative criminological research.Qualitative research use has expanded rapidly in the last twenty years. This latest volume of Advances in Criminological Theory presents a cogent appraisal of qualitative criminology and the ways in which rigorous qualitative research contributes to theorizing about crime and justice."

The Explanation Of Crime

Author : Per-Olof H. Wikström
ISBN : 1139460218
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 64. 26 MB
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Integration of disciplines, theories and research orientations has assumed a central role in criminological discourse yet it remains difficult to identify any concrete discoveries or significant breakthroughs for which integration has been responsible. Concentrating on three key concepts: context, mechanisms, and development, this volume aims to advance integrated scientific knowledge on crime causation by bringing together different scholarly approaches. Through an analysis of the roles of behavioural contexts and individual differences in crime causation, The Explanation of Crime seeks to provide a unified and focused approach to the integration of knowledge. Chapter topics range from individual genetics to family environments and from ecological behaviour settings to the macro-level context of communities and social systems. This is a comprehensive treatment of the problem of crime causation that will appeal to graduate students and researchers in criminology and be of great interest to policy-makers and practitioners in crime policy and prevention.

The Urban Fabric Of Crime And Fear

Author : Vania Ceccato
ISBN : 9789400742109
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 62. 13 MB
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How does the city’s urban fabric relate to crime and fear, and how is that fabric affected by crime and fear? Does the urban environment affect one’s decision to commit an offence? Is there a victimisation-related inequality within cities? How do crime and fear interrelate to inequality and segregation in cities of developing countries? What are the challenges to planning cities which are both safe and sustainable? This book searches for answers to these questions in the nature of the city, particularly in the social interactions that take place in urban space distinctively guided by different land uses and people’s activities. In other words, the book deals with the urban fabric of crime and fear. The novelty of the book is to place safety and security issues on the urban scale by (1) showing links between urban structure, and crime and fear, (2) illustrating how different disciplines deal with urban vulnerability to (and fear of) crime (3) including concrete examples of issues and challenges found in European and North American cities, and, without being too extensive, also in cities of the Global South.

What Works In Offender Compliance

Author : Pamela Ugwudike
ISBN : 9781137019523
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 74. 45 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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This comprehensive edited collection draws together the latest international literature on offender compliance during penal supervision and after court orders expire. Outlining emerging developments in compliance research, theory, policy and practice, this book considers a wide range of offenders including women and young people.

Beyond The Banality Of Evil

Author : Augustine Brannigan
ISBN : 0199674620
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 52. 91 MB
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Offering the author's reflections on how to interpret genocide as a crime, this book endeavours to understand how the theories of criminal motivation might shed light on these stunning events and make them comprehensible, including a new and compelling account of the dynamics of the 1994 Rwanda genocide.

Victims Crime And Society

Author : Pamela Davies
ISBN : 9781473910911
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 68. 22 MB
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This book provides a thorough account of victimisation across the social spectrum of class, race, age and gender. The second edition has been fully revised and expanded, with two parts now spanning the key perspectives and issues in victimology. Covering theoretical, social and political contexts, the book: Includes new chapters on defining and constructing victims, fear and vulnerability, sexuality, white collar crime and the implications of crime policy on victims Examines a global range of historical and theoretical perspectives in victimology and features a new chapter on researching victims of crime Reinforces your learning through critical thinking sections, future research suggestions, chapter summaries and a glossary of key terms Now includes a companion website, complete with links to relevant journal articles in victimology. Victims, Crime and Society is the essential text for your studies in victimology across criminology, criminal justice, community safety, youth justice and related areas.

The Oxford Handbook Of Criminology

Author : Mike Maguire
ISBN : 9780199205448
Genre : Law
File Size : 28. 5 MB
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teachers and students of criminology and is a sourcebook for professionals.

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