biomass as energy source resources systems and applications sustainable energy developments

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Biomass As Energy Source

Author : Erik Dahlquist
ISBN : 9780203120255
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 23 MB
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Global energy use is approximately 140 000 TWh per year. Interestingly, biomass production amounts to approximately 270 000 TWh per year, or roughly twice as much, whereas the official figure of biomass use for energy applications is 10-13% of the global energy use. This shows that biomass is not a marginal energy resource but more than capable of meeting all our energy and food needs, provided it is used efficiently. The use of food in generating energy has been extensively debated, but there is actually no need for it given the comprehensive resources available from agriculture and forestry waste. This book discusses the biomass resources available and aspects like efficient energy use. One way of using energy efficiently is to use waste biomass or cellulosic materials in biorefineries, where production of fibers and products from fibers is combined with production of most chemicals we need in our daily life. Such products include clothes, soap, perfume, medicines etc. Conventional pulp and paper applications, bio-fuel for vehicles and even fuel for aviation as well as heat and power production are covered. The problem with biomass is not availability, but the difficulty to use the resources efficiently without harming the long-term productivity. This book covers all types of resources on a global scale, making it unique. Many researchers from all over the world have contributed to give a good coverage of all the different international perspectives. This book will provide facts and inspiration to professionals, engineers, researchers, and students as well as to those working for various authorities and organizations.

Alternative Energy Systems And Applications

Author : B. K. Hodge
ISBN : 9781119109211
Genre : Science
File Size : 35. 14 MB
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The comprehensive guide to engineering alternative and renewable energy systems and applications—updated for the latest trends and technologies This book was designed tohelp engineers develop new solutions for the current energy economy. To that end it provides technical discussions, along with numerous real-world examples of virtually all existing alternative energy sources, applications, systems and system components. All chapters focus on first-order engineering calculations, and consider alternative uses of existing and renewable energy resources. Just as important, the author describes how to apply these concepts to the development of new energy solutions. Since the publication of the critically acclaimed first edition of this book, the alternative, renewable and sustainable energy industries have witnessed significant evolution and growth. Hydraulic fracturing, fossil fuel reserve increases, the increasing popularity of hybrid and all-electric vehicles, and the decreasing cost of solar power already have had a significant impact on energy usage patterns worldwide. Updated and revised to reflect those and other key developments, this new edition features expanded coverage of topics covered in the first edition, as well as entirely new chapters on hydraulic fracturing and fossil fuels, hybrid and all-electric vehicles, and more. Begins with a fascinating look at the changing face of global energy economy Features chapters devoted to virtually all sources of alternative energy and energy systems Offers technical discussions of hydropower, wind, passive solar and solar-thermal, photovoltaics, fuel cells, CHP systems, geothermal, ocean energy, biomass, and nuclear Contains updated chapter review questions, homework problems, and a thoroughly revised solutions manual, available on the companion website While Alternative Energy Systems and Applications, Second Edition is an ideal textbook/reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate level engineering courses in energy-related subjects, it is also an indispensable professional resource for engineers and technicians working in areas related to the development of alternative/renewable energy systems.

Natural Resources Available Today And In The Future

Author : Erik Dahlquist
ISBN : 9783319542638
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 76 MB
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This book focuses on providing an overview of all our available natural resources, considering the sustainability and potential for power generation of each. Energy efficiency prospects of each natural resource are examined in the context of society’s key energy needs- Heating/cooling, Electric Power, Transportation and Industrial Production. Geography, climate and demographics are all discussed as key vectors impacting the comparative opportunities for self-sustenance around the globe. The authors provide in-depth coverage of renewable energy upscale and energy efficiency improvements in industry and society within a historical context, including a keen look at the variable effectiveness of different policy tools that have been used to support the transition away from unsustainable resource use. Finally, suggestions for more sustainable futures are provided, from improved policy measures, to new technological horizons in areas from offshore wind and marine energy to biogas and energy storage.

Clean Energy For Sustainable Development

Author : Abul Kalam Azad
ISBN : 9780128054246
Genre : Science
File Size : 58. 96 MB
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Clean Energy for Sustainable Development: Comparisons and Contrasts of New Approaches presents information on the fundamental challenge that the energy sector faces with regard to meeting the ever growing demand for sustainable, efficient, and cleaner energy. The book compares recent developments in the field of energy technology, clean and low emission energy, and energy efficiency and environmental sustainability for industry and academia. Rasul, Azad and Sharma, along with their team of expert contributors, provide high-end research findings on relevant industry themes, including clean and sustainable energy sources and technologies, renewable energy technologies and their applications, biomass and biofuels for sustainable environment, energy system and efficiency improvement, solar thermal applications, and the environmental impacts of sustainable energy systems. This book uses global institutes and case studies to explore and analyze technological advancements alongside practical applications. This approach helps readers to develop and affirm a better understanding of the relevant concepts and solutions necessary to achieve clean energy and sustainable development in both medium and large-scale industries. Compares in-depth research on a wide range of clean technologies, from global institutes in Australia, Europe, and India Evaluates the recent developments in clean technologies against the efficiency of tried and tested applications Considers case studies on the advancements of sustainable energy into industry from around the world

Sustainable Energy Solutions In Agriculture

Author : Jochen Bundschuh
ISBN : 9781315778716
Genre : Science
File Size : 62. 5 MB
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Sustainability in agriculture and associated primary industries, which are both energy-intensive, is crucial for the development of any country. Increasing scarcity and resulting high fossil fuel prices combined with the need to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, make the improvement of energy efficient farming and increased use of renewable energy essential. This book provides a technological and scientific endeavor to assist society and farming communities in different regions and scales to improve their productivity and sustainability. To fulfill future needs of a modern sustainable agriculture, this book addresses highly actual topics providing innovative, effective and more sustainable solutions for agriculture by using sustainable, environmentally friendly, renewable energy sources and modern energy efficient, cost-improved technologies. The book highlights new areas of research, and further R&D needs. It helps to improve food security for the rapidly growing world population and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use in agriculture, which presently contributes 22% of the global carbon dioxide emissions. This book provides a source of information, stimuli and incentives for what and how new and energy efficient technologies can be applied as effective tools and solutions in agricultural production to satisfy the continually increasing demand for food and fibre in an economically sustainable way, while contributing to global climate change mitigation. It will be useful and inspiring to decision makers working in different authorities, professionals, agricultural engineers, researchers, and students concerned with agriculture and related primay industries, sustainable energy development and climate change mitigation projects.

Geothermal Systems And Energy Resources

Author : Alper Baba
ISBN : 9781138001091
Genre : Science
File Size : 87. 74 MB
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In the region comprising Turkey and Greece, people have been using water from geothermal sources for bathing and washing of clothes since ancient times. This region falls within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and hence is a locus of active volcanism and tectonism and experiences frequent seismic events. This volcanic and tectonic activity has given rise to over 1500 geothermal springs. Its importance was recognized decades ago and the geothermal water is now being utilized for district heating, industrial processing, domestic water supply, balneology and electric power generation. The geothermal potential in this region is large. In Turkey alone it is estimated to be more than 31500 MWt while the proven potential is 4078 MWt. At present 2084 MWt is being utilized for direct applications in Turkey and 135 MWt in Greece. In Turkey electricity is produced for 166 MW installed capacity, whereas in Greece geothermal energy is presently not used for electricity production despite its potential. This book discusses the geochemical evolution of the thermal waters and thermal gases in terms of the current volcano-tectonic setting and associated geological framework that makes the region very important to the geothermal scientific community. The book explains, in a didactic way, the possible applications, depending on local conditions and scales, and it presents new and stimulating ideas for future developments of this renewable energy source. Additionally, the book discusses the role(s) of possible physicochemical processes in deep hydrothermal systems, the volatile provenance and relative contributions of mantle and crustal components to total volatile inventories. It provides the reader with a thorough understanding of the geothermal systems of this region and identifi es the most suitable solutions for specifi c tasks and needs elsewhere in the world. It is the fi rst time that abundant information and data from this region, obtained from intensive research during the last few decades, is unveiled to the international geothermal community. Thus, an international readership, in the professional and academic sectors, as well as in key institutions that deal with geothermal energy, will benefit from the knowledge from geothermal research and experiences obtained from the Aegean Region.

Technologies For Converting Biomass To Useful Energy

Author : Erik Dahlquist
ISBN : 9780415620888
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 36 MB
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Officially, the use of biomass for energy meets only 10-13% of the total global energy demand of 140 000 TWh per year. Still, thirty years ago the official figure was zero, as only traded biomass was included. While the actual production of biomass is in the range of 270 000 TWh per year, most of this is not used for energy purposes, and mostly it is not used very efficiently. Therefore, there is a need for new methods for converting biomass into refined products like chemicals, fuels, wood and paper products, heat, cooling and electric power. Obviously, some biomass is also used as food – our primary life necessity. The different types of conversion methods covered in this volume are biogas production, bio-ethanol production, torrefaction, pyrolysis, high temperature gasifi cation and combustion. This book covers the suitability of different methods for conversion of different types of biomass. Different versions of the conversion methods are presented – both existing methods and those being developed for the future. System optimization using modeling methods and simulation are analyzed to determine advantages and disadvantages of different solutions. Many international experts have contributed to provide an up-to-date view of the situation all over the world. These global perspectives and the inclusion of so much expertise of distinguished international researchers and professionals make this book unique. This book will prove useful and inspiring to professionals, engineers, researchers and students as well as to those working for different authorities and organizations.

Sustainable Energy Policies For Europe

Author : Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes
ISBN : 9780203120224
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 15 MB
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The discussion about energy perspectives beyond 2020, up to 2030 and eventually 2050 has started. There seems to be a verbal consensus on the necessity of ambitious climate change mitigation policies, without a convincing perspective of the necessary policy decisions to be reached in due time. Methods to achieve greenhouse gas reduction as well as energy security vary from aiming for 100% renewable energies and setting up appropriate policy frameworks to implementing a mix of renewables comprising so-called clean fossil and nuclear energy. This book provides an analysis of the different approaches and the reasons why there is no sustainable alternative to aiming for 100% renewables – and how this vision could come true. The book provides an overview and in-depth analysis of a vital debate. It describes how the present policy framework with 2020-targets for the share of renewables, for increase of energy efficiency and for greenhouse gas emissions reduction was developed and how it has been implemented so far. Furthermore, it describes and analyses the emerging debate about the future of our energy system and the necessary next steps and targets leading up to 2030.

Low Energy Low Carbon Architecture

Author : Khaled Al-Sallal
ISBN : 9781315624020
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 58. 20 MB
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Providing a complete and in-depth overview of the available knowledge in the area of low energy and low carbon architecture. The scope of this edited book includes several important topics ranging from chapters giving a broad view of the progressing models in ecologically responsible environments to other chapters focussing on recent advances in design strategies and building technologies in low energy heating, cooling, daylighting, materials, and building sustainable systems. Two other essential topics are covered, providing a link between theory and implementation: sustainable energy policies/standards and performance modeling in low energy architecture. Finally, the book will give the readers insight into the future of low energy and low carbon architecture in the beyond-green era and discussed in the broader context of the progressing theories of regenerative design.

Computational Models For Co2 Geo Sequestration Compressed Air Energy Storage

Author : Rafid Al-Khoury
ISBN : 9781315778723
Genre : Mathematics
File Size : 68. 55 MB
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A comprehensive mathematical and computational modeling of CO2 Geosequestration and Compressed Air Energy Storage Energy and environment are two interrelated issues of great concern to modern civilization. As the world population will soon reach eight billion, the demand for energy will dramatically increase, intensifying the use of fossil fuels. Utilization of fossil fuels is by far the largest anthropogenic source of CO2 emission into the earth’s atmosphere. This unavoidable reality necessitates efforts to mitigate CO2 from indefi nitely being emitted in the atmosphere. CO2 geo-sequestration is currently considered to be a vital technology for this purpose. Meanwhile, and as fossil fuels will sooner or later be depleted, utilization of renewable energy resources is inevitable. Nowadays, wind and solar energy, being clean and sustainable, are gaining momentum. However, their availability is intermittent. This intermittent nature of solar and wind energy necessitates storing the produced energy at off-peak times for later use. Compressed air energy storage in subterranean caverns, aquifers and coal seams is currently considered to be a plausible technology for this purpose. CO2 geo-sequestration and compressed air energy storage are thus vital technologies for current and future energy strategy development. These technologies can be made safe and cost-effective by utilizing computational tools capable of simulating the involved multiphysical phenomena and processes. Computational modeling of such systems is challenging and resource-consuming. Meeting such a challenge constitutes the focal point of this book. This book addresses comprehensive theoretical and computational modeling aspects of CO2 geosequestration and compressed air energy storage. The book consists of 16 chapters authored by prominent researchers in these two fi elds. The authors of the book endeavoured to present years of innovative work, making it available for a wide range of readers, including geoscientists, poromechanists, applied mathematicians, computational geoscientists, geologists and reservoir engineers.

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