biodegradation of nitroaromatic compounds and explosives

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Biodegradation Of Nitroaromatic Compounds And Explosives

Author : Jim C. Spain
ISBN : 9781420032673
Genre : Science
File Size : 43. 8 MB
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Filled with practical applications and research, Biodegradation of Nitroaromatic Compounds and Explosives presents an international perspective on environmental contamination from explosives. It covers biodegradation strategies for DNT and a wide variety of other nitroaromatic compounds of environmental significance and makes the information accessible to practicing environmental and chemical engineers. Biodegradation of Nitroaromatic Compounds and Explosives gives you a synthesis of ongoing research and an appreciation of the remarkable range of biochemical strategies available for the transformation of nitroaromatic compounds. It provides a realistic assessment of the current and potential field applications of the various strategies.

Ecotoxicology Of Explosives

Author : Geoffrey I. Sunahara
ISBN : 1420004344
Genre : Science
File Size : 27. 50 MB
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Managing sites contaminated with munitions constituents is an international challenge. Although the choice of approach and the use of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) tools may vary from country to country, the assurance of quality and the direction of ecotoxicological research are universally recognized as shared concerns. Drawing on a multidisciplinary team of contributors, Ecotoxicology of Explosives provides comprehenisve and critical reviews available to date on fate, transport, and effects of explosives. The book delineates the state of the science of the ecotoxicology of explosives, past, present, and recently developed. It reviews the accessible fate and ecotoxicological data for energetic materials (EMs) and the methods for their development. The chapters characterize the fate of explosives in the environment, then provide information on their ecological effects in key environmental media, including aquatic, sedimentary, and terrestrial habitats. The book also discusses approaches for assembling these lines of evidence for risk assessment purposes. The chapter authors have critically examined the peer-reviewed literature to identify and prioritize the knowledge gaps and to recommend future areas of research. The editors include a review of the genotoxic effects of the EMs and the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of these chemicals. They also discuss the transport, transformation, and degradation pathways of these chemicals in the environment that underlie the potential hazardous impact and bioaccumulation of EMs in different terrestrial and aquatic ecologiocal receptors. This information translates into practical applications for the environmental risk assessment of EM-contaminated sites and into recommendations for the sustainable use of defense installations.

Biodegradation Of Nitroaromatic Compounds

Author : Jim C. Spain
ISBN : 9781475794472
Genre : Science
File Size : 57. 25 MB
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During the past five years increased awareness of environmental contamination by nitroaromatic compounds has led to a dramatic increase in research on their biodegradation. The resulting discoveries have markedly extended our understanding of degradation mecha nisms and pathways in bacteria and fungi. Futhermore, this new basic knowledge promises the development of field applications of biodegradation systems for nitroaromatic com pounds. In May of 1994, an International Symposium on the Biodegradation of Nitro aromatic Compounds was held in Las Vegas, Nevada. This symposium brought together the scientists at the frontiers of research into the biodegradation of nitro aromatic compounds. The invited speakers were asked to review their area of expertise and write a critical, comprehensive synthesis of their work and related work by others. This book is the result of their efforts. The emphasis of the reviews is on basic research in biodegradation and biotransfor mation. Therefore, the reactions of nitroaromatic compounds in plants, animals, bacteria, fungi, soil, and even nonbiological systems are considered. The goal of the work is to provide the reader with an appreciation of the tremendous range of possibilities for metabolism of aromatic nitro compounds and the experimental approaches used to understand them. This volume should be of interest to biochemists, microbiologists, engineers, toxicologists, and anyone interested in the behavior of synthetic chemicals in the environment or in living systems. Furthermore, a variety of commercial applications can be envisioned for some of the reactions described here.

Biological Remediation Of Explosive Residues

Author : Shree Nath Singh
ISBN : 9783319010830
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 77 MB
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Microbial degradation, Phytoremediation, Remediation, Explosive residues, Biotransformation, Mineralization, Degradative Enzymes, Degradation Pathways, Energetics, Soil contamination, Water contamination.

Applied Bioremediation And Phytoremediation

Author : Ajay Singh
ISBN : 3540210202
Genre : Nature
File Size : 80. 87 MB
Format : PDF
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The huge expansion of the chemical and petroleum industries in the twentieth century has resulted in the production of a vast array of chem ical compounds and materials that have transformed our lives. The associated large-scale manufacturing, processing and handling activi ties have caused a serious deterioration in environmental quality and created threats to human health. These negative impacts have led to responses and regulations requiring remedial action in support of envi ronmental sustainability. of biotechnological methods through bioremediation, Application has gained prominence as an option for soil remediation methods. Bioremediation is a multidisciplinary approach where biologists, chem ists, soil scientists and engineers work as team to develop and imple ment remediation processes. Bioremediation has now been used successfully to remediate many petroleum-contaminated sites. However, there are as yet no commercial technologies commonly used to reme diate the most recalcitrant contaminants. Nevertheless, bioremediation is a rapidly advancing field and new bio-based remedial technologies are continuing to emerge.

Fungal Biotechnology In Agricultural Food And Environmental Applications

Author : Dilip K. Arora
ISBN : 0824747704
Genre : Science
File Size : 81. 30 MB
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Contributions from 80 world-renowned authorities representing a broad international background lend Fungal Biotechnology in Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Applicationsfirst-class information on the biotechnological potential of entomopathogenic fungi and ergot alkaloids, applications of Trichoderma in disease control, and the development of mycoherbicides. Additional topics include fungal control of nematodes, control of plant disease by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, strategies for controlling vegetable and fruit crops, molecular biology tactics with mycotoxigenic fungi and the development of biofungicides, production of edible fungi, fermented foods, and high-value products like mycoprotein.

Manual Of Environmental Microbiology

Author : Christon J. Hurst
ISBN : UOM:39076002328842
Genre : Medical
File Size : 80. 58 MB
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The new second edition of this essential manual summarizes the information and knowledge of environmental microbiology in a single source. It details the natural fate of microorganisms in the environment as well as the intentional attempts to eliminate from the environment microorganisms that are pathogenic to humans or to plants and animals. The basic principles of environmental microbiology and general analytical methodologies, common across the range of the environments covered, are presented first. The core sections are structured with regard to the type of environmental medium being discussed. This landmark effort defines the study of environmental microbiology as we know it today and serve as an essential contribution to the literature.

Bioscience Biotechnology And Biochemistry

Author :
ISBN : OSU:32435078974722
Genre : Biochemistry
File Size : 56. 54 MB
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Bioremediation

Author : Ronald L. Crawford
ISBN : 052101915X
Genre : Medical
File Size : 83. 19 MB
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Increased industrial and agricultural activity this century has led to vast quantities of the earth's soil and groundwater resources becoming contaminated with hazardous chemicals. Bioremediation provides a technology based on the use of living organisms, usually bacteria and fungi, to remove pollutants from soil and water, preferably in situ. This approach, which is potentially more cost-effective than traditional techniques such as incineration of soils and carbon filtration of water, requires an understanding of how organisms transform chemicals, how they survive in polluted environments and how they should be employed in the field. This book examines these issues for many of the most serious and common environmental contaminants, resulting in a volume which presents the most recent position on the application of bioremediation to the cleanup of polluted soil and water.

Microbial Degradation Of Xenobiotics

Author : Shree Nath Singh
ISBN : 3642237894
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 68 MB
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Our interest in the microbial biodegradation of xenobiotics has increased many folds in recent years to find out sustainable ways for environmental cleanup. Bioremediation and biotransformation processes harness the naturally occurring ability of microbes to degrade, transform or accumulate a wide range of organic pollutants. Major methodological breakthroughs in recent years through detailed genomic, metagenomic, proteomic, bioinformatic and other high-throughput analyses of environmentally relevant microorganisms have provided us unprecedented insights into key biodegradative pathways and the ability of organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The degradation of a wide spectrum of organic pollutants and wastes discharged into the environment by anthropogenic activities is an emerging need today to promote sustainable development of our society with low environmental impact. Microbial processes play a major role in the removal of recalcitrant compounds taking advantage of the astonishing catabolic versatility of microorganisms to degrade or transform such compounds. New breakthroughs in sequencing, genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics and imaging are generating vital information which opens a new era providing new insights of metabolic and regulatory networks, as well as clues to the evolution of degradation pathways and to the molecular adaptation strategies to changing environmental conditions. Functional genomic and metagenomic approaches are increasing our understanding of the relative importance of different pathways and regulatory networks to carbon flux in particular environments and for particular compounds. New approaches will certainly accelerate the development of bioremediation technologies and biotransformation processes in coming years for natural attenuation of contaminated environments

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