basic concepts of x ray diffraction

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Basic Concepts Of X Ray Diffraction

Author : Emil Zolotoyabko
ISBN : 9783527681181
Genre : Science
File Size : 49. 42 MB
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Authored by a university professor deeply involved in X-ray diffraction-related research, this textbook is based on his lectures given to graduate students for more than 20 years. It adopts a well-balanced approach, describing basic concepts and experimental techniques, which make X-ray diffraction an unsurpassed method for studying the structure of materials. Both dynamical and kinematic X-ray diffraction is considered from a unified viewpoint, in which the dynamical diffraction in single-scattering approximation serves as a bridge between these two parts. The text emphasizes the fundamental laws that govern the interaction of X-rays with matter, but also covers in detail classical and modern applications, e.g., line broadening, texture and strain/stress analyses, X-ray mapping in reciprocal space, high-resolution X-ray diffraction in the spatial and wave vector domains, X-ray focusing, inelastic and time-resolved X-ray scattering. This unique scope, in combination with otherwise hard-to-find information on analytic expressions for simulating X-ray diffraction profiles in thin-film heterostructures, X-ray interaction with phonons, coherent scattering of M?ssbauer radiation, and energy-variable X-ray diffraction, makes the book indispensable for any serious user of X-ray diffraction techniques. Compact and self-contained, this textbook is suitable for students taking X-ray diffraction courses towards specialization in materials science, physics, chemistry, or biology. Numerous clear-cut illustrations, an easy-to-read style of writing, as well as rather short, easily digestible chapters all facilitate comprehension.

Theory Of X Ray Diffraction In Crystals

Author : William H. Zachariasen
ISBN : 0486495671
Genre : Science
File Size : 26. 79 MB
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This classic by one of the great figures in x-ray structure analysis provides a vigorous mathematical treatment of its subject. Addresses such fundamentals as crystal faces and edges, the lattice postulate, lattice rows and panes, as well as point, translation,and space groups. 1945 edition.

X Ray Diffraction For Materials Research

Author : Myeongkyu Lee
ISBN : 9781315361970
Genre : Science
File Size : 67. 83 MB
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X-ray diffraction is a useful and powerful analysis technique for characterizing crystalline materials commonly employed in MSE, physics, and chemistry. This informative new book describes the principles of X-ray diffraction and its applications to materials characterization. It consists of three parts. The first deals with elementary crystallography and optics, which is essential for understanding the theory of X-ray diffraction discussed in the second section of the book. Part 2 describes how the X-ray diffraction can be applied for characterizing such various forms of materials as thin films, single crystals, and powders. The third section of the book covers applications of X-ray diffraction. The book presents a number of examples to help readers better comprehend the subject. X-Ray Diffraction for Materials Research: From Fundamentals to Applications also • provides background knowledge of diffraction to enable nonspecialists to become familiar with the topics • covers the practical applications as well as the underlying principle of X-ray diffraction • presents appropriate examples with answers to help readers understand the contents more easily • includes thin film characterization by X-ray diffraction with relevant experimental techniques • presents a huge number of elaborately drawn graphics to help illustrate the content The book will help readers (students and researchers in materials science, physics, and chemistry) understand crystallography and crystal structures, interference and diffraction, structural analysis of bulk materials, characterization of thin films, and nondestructive measurement of internal stress and phase transition. Diffraction is an optical phenomenon and thus can be better understood when it is explained with an optical approach, which has been neglected in other books. This book helps to fill that gap, providing information to convey the concept of X-ray diffraction and how it can be applied to the materials analysis. This book will be a valuable reference book for researchers in the field and will work well as a good introductory book of X-ray diffraction for students in materials science, physics, and chemistry.

Basics Of X Ray Diffraction And Its Applications

Author : K. Ramakanth Hebbar
ISBN : 8189866079
Genre : X-ray crystallography
File Size : 74. 34 MB
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Starting with the history of the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen and the subsequent formalization of diffraction laws by Von Laue, Bragg and others, it covers the essential fundamentals of crystallography and the theory of X-ray generation and of the interaction of X-rays with matter. X-ray diffraction theory is covered in detail, serving as an excellent background to the following chapters the application procedures such as the laue, the rotating crystal and the powder techniques. Reciprocal lattice theory is introduced with the necessary vector algebra and the relationship between reciprocal lattice and diffraction, which the student has generally some difficulty in understanding in the beginning, has been brought out elegantly. The chapters on film techniques are followed by one on the X-ray diffractometer and its applications. Specific applications such as crystal structure determination, accurate determination of lattice parameters, single crystal studies, studies of crystallographic texture, stress measurement, order-disorder transformation, phase diagram determination are covered in sufficient detail in the next chapters. There is a final chapter on the use of X-ray diffraction in chemical analysis. The list of topics covered is quite comprehensive. The treatment of topics in each chapter is sufficiently exhaustive for undergraduate and graduate courses in X-ray diffraction, not only for metallurgists and materials scientists/engineers, but also for other disciplines requiring the study of X-ray diffraction. The book is very well-written and the examples, solved and unsolved, at the end of various chapters will benefit the students greatly in understanding the concepts underlying them

Early Days Of X Ray Crystallography

Author : André Authier
ISBN : 9780199659845
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 36 MB
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The modern applications of X-ray crystallography range from drug design to characterisation of high technology materials. This book tells the story of its pioneers and relates how the first crystal structures were determined.

Principles Of X Ray Crystallography

Author : Li-ling Ooi
ISBN : 9780199569045
Genre : Science
File Size : 74. 73 MB
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"With an understanding of three-dimensional structure being so central to the understanding of molecular function, Principles of X-ray Crystallography is the perfect guide for anyone needing to gain a working insight into X-ray crystallography." --Book Jacket.

Elements Of X Ray Diffraction

Author : Bernard Dennis Cullity
ISBN : 0201011743
Genre : Rayons X - Diffraction
File Size : 88. 45 MB
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Intended to acquaint the reader with the theory of x-ray diffraction, the experimental methods involved, and the main applications. The book is a collection of principles and methods stressing X-ray diffraction rather than metallurgy. The book is written entirely in terms of the Bragg law and can be read without any knowledge of the reciprocal lattice. It is divided into three main parts— Fundamentals; experimental methods; and applications. Designed for beginners, not as a reference tool for the advanced reader.

X Ray Diffraction

ISBN : 9788120341944
Genre : Science
File Size : 66. 28 MB
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Designed for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of physics, materials science and metallurgical engineering, this text explains the theory of X-ray diffraction starting from diffraction by an electron to that by an atom, a crystal, and finally ending with a diffraction by a conglomerate of atoms either in the single crystal or in the polycrystal stage. This Second Edition of the book includes a new chapter on Electron Diffraction as electron diffraction along with X-ray diffraction are complementary to each other and are also included in the curriculum. The book amply blends the theory with major applications of X-ray diffraction, including those of direct analysis of lattice defects by X-ray topography, orientation texture analysis, chemical analysis by diffraction as well as by fluorescence. KEY FEATURES : Set of numerical problems along with solutions Details of some different experimental techniques Unsolved problems and Review Questions to grasp the concepts.

The Basics Of Crystallography And Diffraction

Author : Christopher Hammond
ISBN : 9780198738671
Genre : Science
File Size : 50. 18 MB
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" International Union of Crystallography."

X Ray Diffraction Imaging Of Biological Cells

Author : Masayoshi Nakasako
ISBN : 9784431566182
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 77. 2 MB
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In this book, the author describes the development of the experimental diffraction setup and structural analysis of non-crystalline particles from material science and biology. Recent advances in X-ray free electron laser (XFEL)-coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiments allow for the structural analysis of non-crystalline particles to a resolution of 7 nm, and to a resolution of 20 nm for biological materials. Now XFEL-CXDI marks the dawn of a new era in structural analys of non-crystalline particles with dimensions larger than 100 nm, which was quite impossible in the 20th century. To conduct CXDI experiments in both synchrotron and XFEL facilities, the author has developed apparatuses, named KOTOBUKI-1 and TAKASAGO-6 for cryogenic diffraction experiments on frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at around 66 K. At the synchrotron facility, cryogenic diffraction experiments dramatically reduce radiation damage of specimen particles and allow tomography CXDI experiments. In addition, in XFEL experiments, non-crystalline particles scattered on thin support membranes and flash-cooled can be used to efficiently increase the rate of XFEL pulses. The rate, which depends on the number density of scattered particles and the size of X-ray beams, is currently 20-90%, probably the world record in XFEL-CXDI experiments. The experiment setups and results are introduced in this book. The author has also developed software suitable for efficiently processing of diffraction patterns and retrieving electron density maps of specimen particles based on the diffraction theory used in CXDI.

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