basic concepts of x ray diffraction

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Basic Concepts Of X Ray Diffraction

Author : Emil Zolotoyabko
ISBN : 9783527681181
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 55 MB
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Authored by a university professor deeply involved in X-ray diffraction-related research, this textbook is based on his lectures given to graduate students for more than 20 years. It adopts a well-balanced approach, describing basic concepts and experimental techniques, which make X-ray diffraction an unsurpassed method for studying the structure of materials. Both dynamical and kinematic X-ray diffraction is considered from a unified viewpoint, in which the dynamical diffraction in single-scattering approximation serves as a bridge between these two parts. The text emphasizes the fundamental laws that govern the interaction of X-rays with matter, but also covers in detail classical and modern applications, e.g., line broadening, texture and strain/stress analyses, X-ray mapping in reciprocal space, high-resolution X-ray diffraction in the spatial and wave vector domains, X-ray focusing, inelastic and time-resolved X-ray scattering. This unique scope, in combination with otherwise hard-to-find information on analytic expressions for simulating X-ray diffraction profiles in thin-film heterostructures, X-ray interaction with phonons, coherent scattering of M?ssbauer radiation, and energy-variable X-ray diffraction, makes the book indispensable for any serious user of X-ray diffraction techniques. Compact and self-contained, this textbook is suitable for students taking X-ray diffraction courses towards specialization in materials science, physics, chemistry, or biology. Numerous clear-cut illustrations, an easy-to-read style of writing, as well as rather short, easily digestible chapters all facilitate comprehension.

Basic Concepts Of X Ray Diffraction

Author : Emil Zolotoyabko
ISBN : 9783527681143
Genre : Science
File Size : 47. 18 MB
Format : PDF
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Authored by a university professor deeply involved in X-ray diffraction-related research, this textbook is based on his lectures given to graduate students for more than 20 years. It adopts a well-balanced approach, describing basic concepts and experimental techniques, which make X-ray diffraction an unsurpassed method for studying the structure of materials. Both dynamical and kinematic X-ray diffraction is considered from a unified viewpoint, in which the dynamical diffraction in single-scattering approximation serves as a bridge between these two parts. The text emphasizes the fundamental laws that govern the interaction of X-rays with matter, but also covers in detail classical and modern applications, e.g., line broadening, texture and strain/stress analyses, X-ray mapping in reciprocal space, high-resolution X-ray diffraction in the spatial and wave vector domains, X-ray focusing, inelastic and time-resolved X-ray scattering. This unique scope, in combination with otherwise hard-to-find information on analytic expressions for simulating X-ray diffraction profiles in thin-film heterostructures, X-ray interaction with phonons, coherent scattering of M?ssbauer radiation, and energy-variable X-ray diffraction, makes the book indispensable for any serious user of X-ray diffraction techniques. Compact and self-contained, this textbook is suitable for students taking X-ray diffraction courses towards specialization in materials science, physics, chemistry, or biology. Numerous clear-cut illustrations, an easy-to-read style of writing, as well as rather short, easily digestible chapters all facilitate comprehension.

X Ray Diffraction For Materials Research

Author : Myeongkyu Lee
ISBN : 9781315361970
Genre : Science
File Size : 84. 18 MB
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X-ray diffraction is a useful and powerful analysis technique for characterizing crystalline materials commonly employed in MSE, physics, and chemistry. This informative new book describes the principles of X-ray diffraction and its applications to materials characterization. It consists of three parts. The first deals with elementary crystallography and optics, which is essential for understanding the theory of X-ray diffraction discussed in the second section of the book. Part 2 describes how the X-ray diffraction can be applied for characterizing such various forms of materials as thin films, single crystals, and powders. The third section of the book covers applications of X-ray diffraction. The book presents a number of examples to help readers better comprehend the subject. X-Ray Diffraction for Materials Research: From Fundamentals to Applications also • provides background knowledge of diffraction to enable nonspecialists to become familiar with the topics • covers the practical applications as well as the underlying principle of X-ray diffraction • presents appropriate examples with answers to help readers understand the contents more easily • includes thin film characterization by X-ray diffraction with relevant experimental techniques • presents a huge number of elaborately drawn graphics to help illustrate the content The book will help readers (students and researchers in materials science, physics, and chemistry) understand crystallography and crystal structures, interference and diffraction, structural analysis of bulk materials, characterization of thin films, and nondestructive measurement of internal stress and phase transition. Diffraction is an optical phenomenon and thus can be better understood when it is explained with an optical approach, which has been neglected in other books. This book helps to fill that gap, providing information to convey the concept of X-ray diffraction and how it can be applied to the materials analysis. This book will be a valuable reference book for researchers in the field and will work well as a good introductory book of X-ray diffraction for students in materials science, physics, and chemistry.

Basics Of X Ray Diffraction And Its Applications

Author : K. Ramakanth Hebbar
ISBN : 8189866079
Genre : X-ray crystallography
File Size : 43. 69 MB
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Starting with the history of the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen and the subsequent formalization of diffraction laws by Von Laue, Bragg and others, it covers the essential fundamentals of crystallography and the theory of X-ray generation and of the interaction of X-rays with matter. X-ray diffraction theory is covered in detail, serving as an excellent background to the following chapters the application procedures such as the laue, the rotating crystal and the powder techniques. Reciprocal lattice theory is introduced with the necessary vector algebra and the relationship between reciprocal lattice and diffraction, which the student has generally some difficulty in understanding in the beginning, has been brought out elegantly. The chapters on film techniques are followed by one on the X-ray diffractometer and its applications. Specific applications such as crystal structure determination, accurate determination of lattice parameters, single crystal studies, studies of crystallographic texture, stress measurement, order-disorder transformation, phase diagram determination are covered in sufficient detail in the next chapters. There is a final chapter on the use of X-ray diffraction in chemical analysis. The list of topics covered is quite comprehensive. The treatment of topics in each chapter is sufficiently exhaustive for undergraduate and graduate courses in X-ray diffraction, not only for metallurgists and materials scientists/engineers, but also for other disciplines requiring the study of X-ray diffraction. The book is very well-written and the examples, solved and unsolved, at the end of various chapters will benefit the students greatly in understanding the concepts underlying them

Theory Of X Ray Diffraction In Crystals

Author : William H. Zachariasen
ISBN : 0486495671
Genre : Science
File Size : 59. 43 MB
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This classic by one of the great figures in x-ray structure analysis provides a vigorous mathematical treatment of its subject. Addresses such fundamentals as crystal faces and edges, the lattice postulate, lattice rows and panes, as well as point, translation,and space groups. 1945 edition.

Early Days Of X Ray Crystallography

Author : André Authier
ISBN : 9780199659845
Genre : Science
File Size : 33. 97 MB
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The modern applications of X-ray crystallography range from drug design to characterisation of high technology materials. This book tells the story of its pioneers and relates how the first crystal structures were determined.

Dynamical Theory Of X Ray Diffraction

Author : André Authier
ISBN : 0198528922
Genre : Science
File Size : 44. 91 MB
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The dynamical theory of diffraction has witnessed exciting developments since the advent of synchrotron radiation. This book provides an up-to-date account of the theory of diffraction and its applications. The first part serves as an introduction to the subject, presenting early developments and the basic results. It is followed by a detailed development of the diffraction and propagation properties of x-rays in perfect crystals and by an extension of the theory to the case of slightly and highly deformed crystals. The last part gives three applications of the theory: X-ray optics for synchrotron radiation, locations of atoms at surfaces, and X-ray diffraction topography. The book is richly illustrated and contains a wide range of references to the literature. It will be a most useful reference work for graduate students, lecturers and researchers.

The Basics Of Crystallography And Diffraction

Author : Christopher Hammond
ISBN : 9780198738671
Genre : Science
File Size : 80. 81 MB
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" International Union of Crystallography."

Computer Simulation Tools For X Ray Analysis

Author : Sérgio Luiz Morelhão
ISBN : 9783319195544
Genre : Science
File Size : 72. 55 MB
Format : PDF
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This book teaches the users on how to construct a library of routines to simulate scattering and diffraction by almost any kind of samples. The main goal of this book is to break down the huge barrier of difficulties faced by beginners from many fields (Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Material Science, etc.) in using X-rays as an analytical tool in their research. Besides fundamental concepts, MatLab routines are provided, showing how to test and implement the concepts. The major difficult in analysing materials by X-ray techniques is that it strongly depends on simulation software. This book teaches the users on how to construct a library of routines to simulate scattering and diffraction by almost any kind of samples. It provides to a young student the knowledge that would take more than 20 years to acquire by working on X-rays and relying on the available textbooks. The scientific productivity worldwide is growing at a breakneck pace, demanding ever more dynamic approaches and synergies between different fields of knowledge. To master the fundamentals of X-ray physics means the opportunity of working at an infiniteness of fields, studying systems where the organizational understanding of matter at the atomic scale is necessary. Since the discovery of X radiation, its usage as investigative tool has always been under fast expansion afforded by instrumental advances and computational resources. Developments in medical and technological fields have, as one of the master girders, the feasibility of structural analysis offered by X-rays. One of the major difficulties faced by beginners in using this fantastic tool lies in the analysis of experimental data. There are only few cases where it is possible to extract structural information directly from experiments. In most cases, structure models and simulation of radiation-matter interaction processes are essential. The advent of intense radiation sources and rapid development of nanotechnology constantly creates challenges that seek solutions beyond those offered by standard X-ray techniques. Preparing new researchers for this scenario of rapid and drastic changes requires more than just teaching theories of physical phenomena. It also requires teaching of how to implement them in a simple and efficient manner. In this book, fundamental concepts in applied X-ray physics are demonstrated through available computer simulation tools. Using MatLab, more than eighty routines are developed for solving the proposed exercises, most of which can be directly used in experimental data analysis. Therefore, besides X-ray physics, this book offers a practical programming course in modern high-level language, with plenty of graphic and mathematical tools.

Introduction To X Ray Powder Diffractometry

Author : Ron Jenkins
ISBN : 9781118520918
Genre : Science
File Size : 89. 22 MB
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