barriers to bioweapons the challenges of expertise and organization for weapons development cornell studies in security affairs

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Barriers To Bioweapons

Author : Sonia Ben Ouagrham-Gormley
ISBN : 9780801471926
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 43. 30 MB
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In both the popular imagination and among lawmakers and national security experts, there exists the belief that with sufficient motivation and material resources, states or terrorist groups can produce bioweapons easily, cheaply, and successfully. In Barriers to Bioweapons, Sonia Ben Ouagrham-Gormley challenges this perception by showing that bioweapons development is a difficult, protracted, and expensive endeavor, rarely achieving the expected results whatever the magnitude of investment. Her findings are based on extensive interviews she conducted with former U.S. and Soviet-era bioweapons scientists and on careful analysis of archival data and other historical documents related to various state and terrorist bioweapons programs. Bioweapons development relies on living organisms that are sensitive to their environment and handling conditions, and therefore behave unpredictably. These features place a greater premium on specialized knowledge. Ben Ouagrham-Gormley posits that lack of access to such intellectual capital constitutes the greatest barrier to the making of bioweapons. She integrates theories drawn from economics, the sociology of science, organization, and management with her empirical research. The resulting theoretical framework rests on the idea that the pace and success of a bioweapons development program can be measured by its ability to ensure the creation and transfer of scientific and technical knowledge. The specific organizational, managerial, social, political, and economic conditions necessary for success are difficult to achieve, particularly in covert programs where the need to prevent detection imposes managerial and organizational conditions that conflict with knowledge production.

Unclear Physics

Author : Malfrid Braut-Hegghammer
ISBN : 9781501705908
Genre : History
File Size : 55. 5 MB
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Many authoritarian leaders want nuclear weapons, but few manage to acquire them. Autocrats seeking nuclear weapons fail in different ways and to varying degrees—Iraq almost managed it; Libya did not come close. In Unclear Physics, Malfrid Braut-Hegghammer compares the two failed nuclear weapons programs, showing that state capacity played a crucial role in the trajectory and outcomes of both projects. Braut-Hegghammer draws on a rich set of new primary sources, collected during years of research in archives, fieldwork across the Middle East, and interviews with scientists and decision makers from both states. She gained access to documents and individuals that no other researcher has been able to consult. Her book tells the story of the Iraqi and Libyan programs from their origins in the late 1950s and 1960s until their dismantling. This book reveals contemporary perspectives from scientists and regime officials on the opportunities and challenges facing each project. Many of the findings challenge the conventional wisdom about clandestine weapons programs in closed authoritarian states and their prospects of success or failure. Braut-Hegghammer suggests that scholars and analysts ought to pay closer attention to how state capacity affects nuclear weapons programs in other authoritarian regimes, both in terms of questioning the actual control these leaders have over their nuclear weapons programs and the capability of their scientists to solve complex technical challenges.

Countering Weapons Of Mass Destruction

Author : Albert J. Mauroni
ISBN : 9781442273313
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 36. 15 MB
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The Cold War phrase “weapons of mass destruction” continues to be used despite significant changes in international political cultures, military concepts of operation, and technology advances. Today, the term “weapons of mass destruction” (WMD) is used to address many things, from grams of ricin and barrels of industrial chemicals to megaton nuclear weapons. As a direct result of the decision to refer to all nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons as well as biological, chemical and radiological (CBR) hazards as “WMD,” we have lost the ability to accurately develop, assess, and discuss policy concerns relating to the contemporary use of unconventional weapons on the battlefield and within the homeland. This book uses a public policy framework to examine how the U.S. government, and in particular the U.S. military, should address the potential use of unconventional weapons in the 21st century. It defines the problem, identifies the policy actors and reviews policy options. It discusses past policy efforts before offering a critical review of current strategies and how WMD issues are integrated into the current military Joint Operating Concepts (deterrence, cooperative security, major combat operations, irregular warfare, stability, and homeland security), and proposes new national framework for countering WMD. The aim is to answer such questions as what does counterproliferation mean and whether the U.S. government is adequately prepared to protect U.S. citizens and its armed forces from adversaries developing unconventional weapons.

Unsere Gemeinsame Zukunft

Author : Volker Hauff
ISBN : 3923166168
Genre :
File Size : 71. 24 MB
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Cobra Sonderausgabe

Author : Richard Preston
ISBN : 3426619520
Genre :
File Size : 66. 9 MB
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Fritz Haber

Author : Dietrich Stoltzenberg
ISBN : UCAL:B4253492
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 21. 54 MB
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The chemist Fritz Haber (1868-1934) was a genius, albeit a controversial is pioneering work in thermodynamics led to the industrial synthesis of ; for this achievement he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1918. Haber's d activities in electrochemistry and other areas of physical chemistry sti chemical research in Germany. Together with his numerous contributions arch and his involvement in the politics of science, they exerted a form nd lasting influence on science in Germany. His burning ambition and passionate patriotism - which manifested itself xample, in his unwavering advocacy of chemical weapons - made the German itz Haber one of the most controversial figures of the twentieth century ailure of his marriages with Clara Immerwahr and Charlotte Nathan is an ion of the complicated side of Fritz Haber, whose life took a tragic tur his emigration in 1933. With this book Dietrich Stoltzenberg has provided the long-awaited compr e biography of Fritz Haber. He avails himself of countless sources, some ch have never been published, to draw up a detailed and fascinating pict Fritz Haber. The book is a 'must' for historians, scientists and everybo rested in the history of early twentieth century Germany.

Hot Zone

Author : Richard Preston
ISBN : 9783426434574
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 35. 81 MB
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Richard Prestons populärwissenschaftlicher Tatsachen-Thriller liest sich spannender als jeder Horror-Roman. Preston berichtet darin über die ersten Infektionen mit dem Ebola-Virus vor über vierzig Jahren. Sein Tatsachenthriller von 1998 ist immer noch hochaktuell, wie die schreckliche Ebola-Epidemie in Zentralafrika gerade zeigt. Ebola gehört zu den gefährlichsten Killerviren. Diese aus dem Afrikanischen Regenwald stammenden sogenannten „Filoviren“, können einen Menschen auf grausamste Art und Weise töten. Das Virus löst innerhalb weniger Tage die inneren Organe auf, und der Erkrankte verblutet von innen. Das Virus ist zudem extrem ansteckend, und weltweit gibt es immer noch kein wirksames Heilmittel dagegen. Deshalb ist es nicht auszuschließen, dass die Menschheit eines Tages einer Seuche wie Ebola erliegen könnte. Preston schildert, wie der Ebola-Erreger über Affen, die für medizinische Versuche importiert wurden, schließlich nach Amerika kommt. In einem kleinen Labor in Reston, USA, verbreitet er Angst und Schrecken. Als sich die Seuche unter den im Quarantänelager zusammengepferchten Affen ausbreitet, rufen die Betreiber der Anlage die Gesundheitsbehörden zu Hilfe. Bald müssen die Wissenschaftler feststellen, dass sich das Virus inzwischen nicht nur durch Kontakt, sondern auch durch die Luft verbreiten kann.

Die K Nste Des Kinos

Author : Martin Seel
ISBN : 9783104027456
Genre : Performing Arts
File Size : 32. 9 MB
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Wie Filme zeigen können, woran wir mit uns sind. Von Anfang an übernimmt das Kino viele Verfahren der Architektur, der Musik, der Malerei, des Schauspiels, der Literatur und anderer Künste – aber es lässt sie nicht so, wie sie dort sind. Das Kino kann, was es kann, weil es das verkehrt und verwandelt, was die anderen Künste können. In seinem neuen Buch unternimmt Martin Seel eine Analyse dieser Verbindung. In neun konzisen Kapiteln erkundet er das besondere ästhetische Potential des Films und führt an konkreten Beispielen vor, wie unterschiedlich es realisiert werden kann. Stilistisch glänzend entwirft Martin Seel eine neuartige Perspektive auf den Film und darauf, was er mit uns im Kino macht.

Die Elfte Plage

Author : John S. Marr
ISBN : 3404143612
Genre :
File Size : 70. 73 MB
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Stanford Bulletin

Author :
ISBN : STANFORD:36105005080622
Genre : Education
File Size : 72. 24 MB
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