axis diplomats in american custody the housing of enemy representatives and their exchange for american counterparts 1941 1945

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Axis Diplomats In American Custody

Author : Landon Alfriend Dunn
ISBN : 9781476664866
Genre : History
File Size : 32. 87 MB
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After Pearl Harbor, German, Italian and Japanese diplomats, along with their staffs and families, were relocated to two lavish but isolated resorts in Appalachia, where the State Department insisted they be treated as distinguished guests. As the war progressed, other Axis envoys were similarly detained. (The Japanese ambassador to Germany was captured by U.S. soldiers in Europe and held in a small hotel in rural Pennsylvania, while the War Department argued for treating him as a war criminal and the local population decried his luxurious accommodations.) Informants were recruited, attempts at espionage and escape were foiled, diplomats complained and squabbled endlessly, babies were born and townspeople made threats, while newspapers published outlandish exposes of wild parties. Based on government documents, the recollections of detainees and hotel staff and contemporary newspaper accounts, this book is the first to focus on the day-to-day lives of the nearly 1,000 detainees during their six-month confinement.

Denominational Higher Education During World War Ii

Author : John J. Laukaitis
ISBN : 9783319966250
File Size : 49. 44 MB
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The Bedford Springs Hotel

Author : Alison Reed Ross
ISBN : 9780738592985
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 55. 54 MB
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The Bedford Springs Hotel, located in a valley in the heart of the Allegheny Mountains, has a rich and fascinating history spanning over 200 years. Established in the 1790s by Dr. John Anderson, who gained his knowledge of the therapeutic mineral springs from local Native Americans, the spa resort drew visitors to the almost magical curative waters in search of renewed health and vitality. Bedford Springs grew to be a popular and fashionable summer resort destination throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, hosting industrialists and socialites and even serving as the summer White House. After housing a US Navy training school and Japanese diplomat detainees during World War II , the Bedford Springs Hotel attracted resort goers until the late 1980s, when it closed its doors. The expansive property sat silently, but elegantly, for two decades before its 2007 rebirth as the luxurious Omni Bedford Springs Resort.

Roads Through The Everglades

Author : Bruce D. Epperson
ISBN : 9781476625027
Genre : Transportation
File Size : 67. 29 MB
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In 1915, the road system in south Florida had changed little since before the Civil War. Travelling from Miami to Ft. Myers meant going through Orlando, 250 miles north of Miami. Within 15 years, three highways were dredged and blasted through the Everglades: Ingraham Highway from Homestead, 25 miles south of Miami, to Flamingo on the tip of the peninsula; Tamiami Trail from Miami to Tampa; and Conners Highway from West Palm Beach to Okeechobee City. In 1916, Florida’s road commission spent $967. In 1928 it spent $6.8 million. Tamiami Trail, originally projected to cost $500,000, eventually required $11 million. These roads were made possible by the 1920s Florida land boom, the advent of gasoline and diesel-powered equipment to replace animal and steam-powered implements, and the creation of a highway funding system based on fuel taxes. This book tells the story of the finance and technology of the first modern highways in the South.

Washington Merry Go Round

Author : Drew Pearson
ISBN : 9781612346939
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 84. 22 MB
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For most of three decades, Drew Pearson was the most well-known journalist in the United States. In his daily newspaper column—the most widely syndicated in the nation—and on radio and television broadcasts, he chronicled the political and public policy news of the nation. At the same time, he worked his way into the inner circles of policy makers in the White House and Congress, lobbying for issues he believed would promote better government and world peace. Pearson, however, still found time to record his thoughts and observations in his personal diary. Published here for the first time, Washington Merry-Go-Round presents Pearson’s private impressions of life inside the Beltway from 1960 to 1969, revealing how he held the confidence of presidents—especially Lyndon B. Johnson—congressional leaders, media moguls, political insiders, and dozens of otherwise unknown sources of information. His direct interactions with the DC glitterati, including Bobby Kennedy and Douglas MacArthur, are featured throughout his diary, drawing the reader into the compelling political intrigues of 1960s Washington and providing the mysterious backstory on the famous and the notorious of the era.

Washington Command Post The Operations Division

Author : Ray S. Cline
ISBN : 1377031624
Genre : History
File Size : 86. 52 MB
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This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

Cultural Diplomacy In U S Japanese Relations 1919 1941

Author : Jon Thares Davidann
ISBN : 1403975329
Genre : History
File Size : 32. 3 MB
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The seeds of the Pacific War can be found scattered throughout the interwar period. This study of unofficial diplomacy from 1919-1941 illuminates causes deeply rooted and often overlooked in explaining the path to war: cultural perceptions on both sides, the pivotal role of public opinion, and the deterioration of Japanese-American relations on both the individual and the cultural levels.

Apartheid S Reluctant Uncle

Author : Thomas Borstelmann
ISBN : 9780195079425
Genre : History
File Size : 21. 64 MB
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Despite the unsavory racism of Malan's government - Borstelmann shows that Pretoria fomented violence among black groups in the late 1940s, just as it has done recently between the ANC and Inkatha - the U.S. saw South Africa as a dependable and important ally. In addition, America was almost completely dependent on southern Africa for its uranium supply, and was willing to go to great lengths to secure the critical fuel for its nuclear arsenal. Borstelmann also notes that race relations in the segregated U.S. played a role in Washington's policies, with few white Americans greatly disturbed by the establishment of apartheid. As South Africa finally nears an end to almost fifty years of formal apartheid (and as Truman nears canonization, following the recent presidential election), Borstelmann's account comes as a startling reminder of America's early links to Pretoria's racist system

Trading With The Enemy

Author : Charles Higham
ISBN : 0385290802
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 46. 24 MB
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Examines the relationships between major American corporations and banks, including Ford, Standard Oil, Chase Bank, and I.T.T., and the Nazi regime, before and throughout the war

Caught Between Roosevelt And Stalin

Author : Dennis J. Dunn
ISBN : 9780813158839
Genre : History
File Size : 90. 47 MB
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On November 16, 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Soviet Commissar of Foreign Affairs Maxim Litvinov signed an agreement establishing diplomatic ties between the United States and the Soviet Union. Two days later Roosevelt named the first of five ambassadors he would place in Moscow between 1933 and 1945. Caught between Roosevelt and Stalin tells the dramatic and important story of these ambassadors and their often contentious relationships with the two most powerful men in the world. More than fifty years after his death, Roosevelt's foreign policy, especially regarding the Soviet Union, remains a subject of intense debate. Dennis Dunn offers an ambitious new appraisal of the apparent confusion and contradiction in Roosevelt's policy one moment publicizing the four freedoms and the Atlantic Charter and the next moment giving tacit approval to Stalin's control of parts of Eastern Europe and northeast Asia. Dunn argues that "Rooseveltism," the president's belief that the Soviet Union and the United States were both developing into modern social democracies, blinded Roosevelt to the true nature of Stalin's brutal dictatorship despite repeated warnings from his ambassadors in Moscow. Focusing on the ambassadors themselves, William C. Bullitt, Joseph E. Davies, Laurence A. Steinhardt, William C. Standley, and W. Averell Harriman, Dunn details their bruising arguments with Roosevelt over the president's repeated concessions to Stalin. Using information uncovered during extensive research in the Soviet archives, Dunn reveals much about Stalin's policy toward the United States and demonstrates that in ignoring his ambassadors' good advice, Roosevelt appeased the Soviet leader unnecessarily. Sure to generate new discussion concerning the origins of the Cold War, this controversial assessment of Roosevelt's failed Soviet policy will be read for years to come.

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