avian flight oxford ornithology series

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Avian Flight

Author : John J. Videler
ISBN : 0199299927
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 52 MB
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Bird flight has always intrigued mankind. This book provides an up to date account of our existing knowledge on the subject, as well as offering new insights and challenging some established views. A brief history of the science of flight introduces the basic physical principles governing aerial locomotion. A treatment of flight-related functional morphology concentrates on the difference in shape of the arm and hand part of the wings, on the structure and function of tails, and on the shape of the body. The anatomy and mechanical properties of feathers receive special attention. Aerodynamic principles used by birds are explained in theory by simply applying Newton's laws, and in practice by showing the direction and velocity of the attached flow around an arm wing cross section and of the leading edge vortex flow above a hand wing. The Archaeopteryx fossils remain crucial in our understanding of the evolution of bird flight despite the recent discovery of a range of well-preserved ancient birds. A novel insight into the interactions between wings and air challenges established theories relating to the origin of bird flight. Take-off, flapping flight, gliding and landing are the basic ingredients of bird flight, and birds use a variety of flight styles from hovering to soaring. Flight muscles consisting of mosaics of specialised fibres are the engines that generate the force required to keep the wings and tail in the gliding configuration and perform work during flapping motion. The energy required to fly can be estimated or measured directly, and a comparison of the empirical results provides insights into the trend in metabolic costs of flight of birds varying in shape and mass from hummingbirds to albatrosses.

Biomimetics

Author : Yoseph Bar-Cohen
ISBN : 9781439834770
Genre : Medical
File Size : 76. 58 MB
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Mimicking nature – from science fiction to engineering reality Humans have always looked to nature’s inventions as a source of inspiration. The observation of flying birds and insects leads to innovations in aeronautics. Collision avoidance sensors mimic the whiskers of rodents. Optimization algorithms are based on survival of the fittest, the seed-picking process of pigeons, or the behavior of ant colonies. In recent years these efforts have become more intensive, with researchers seeking rules, concepts, and principles of biology to inspire new possibilities in materials, mechanisms, algorithms, and fabrication processes. A review of the current state of the art, Biomimetics: Nature Based Innovation documents key biological solutions that provide a model for innovations in engineering and science. Leading experts address a wide range of topics, including: Artificial senses and organs Mimicry at the cell–materials interface Multiscale modeling of plant cell wall architecture and tissue mechanics The making of biomimetic composites Electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators as artificial muscles EAP-based refreshable braille displays Biomimetic optics from the angles of biology and plants Biomimicry of flying birds, insects, and marine biology Applications of biomimetics in manufacturing, products, and medicine Robotics, including the development of human-like robots Biologically inspired design as a tool for interdisciplinary education The biomimetic process in artistic creation The final chapter outlines the challenges to biomimetic-related innovation and offers a vision for the future. A follow-up to Biomimetics: Biologically Inspired Technologies (2005), this comprehensive reference methodically surveys the latest advances in this rapidly emerging field. It features an abundance of illustrations, including a 32-page full-color insert, and provides extensive references for engineers and scientists interested in delving deeper into the study of biomimetics.

Invitation To Generalized Empirical Method In Philosophy And Science

Author : Quinn Terrance J
ISBN : 9789813208452
Genre : Science
File Size : 59. 79 MB
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Bernard Lonergan identified the need and possibility of what he called "generalized empirical method" in science and philosophy. Implementation will be a future community achievement. The book enters into details of a selection of examples in the sciences and philosophy of science. These are provided not to engage in, or blend the present aim with traditional philosophical debate, but as points of entry to help reveal the possibility and need of balanced empirical method. Taking words of Lonergan: "(Q)uestions of method are practical. So my purpose in these (chapters) is not to demonstrate what is necessary. It is not to forecast what is probable. It is ... to invite you to share in the exploration of a proposal" (Bernard Lonergan, A Third Collection (1985), 114). The main examples are drawn from biochemistry and biology, although heuristics envisioned will include all sciences.

Advanced Topics On Computer Vision Control And Robotics In Mechatronics

Author : Osslan Osiris Vergara Villegas
ISBN : 9783319777702
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 31. 97 MB
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The field of mechatronics (which is the synergistic combination of precision mechanical engineering, electronic control and systems thinking in the design of products and manufacturing processes) is gaining much attention in industries and academics. It was detected that the topics of computer vision, control and robotics are imperative for the successful of mechatronics systems. This book includes several chapters which report successful study cases about computer vision, control and robotics. The readers will have the latest information related to mechatronics, that contains the details of implementation, and the description of the test scenarios.

Avian Flight

Author : John J. Videler
ISBN : 0198566034
Genre : Science
File Size : 65. 79 MB
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Avian Flight covers all the main aspects of aerial locomotion by birds including sections on the history of thinking about bird flight, aerodynamics, functional morphology, evolution, kinematics, physiology, energetics and the cost of flight. The subject is complex and still not yet fully understood, and the author argues a convincing case for rethinking or even abandoning some of the old, well-established concepts.

American Book Publishing Record

Author :
ISBN : UOM:39015066180392
Genre : American literature
File Size : 80. 37 MB
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Evolutionary Biomechanics

Author : Graham Taylor
ISBN : 9780191009280
Genre : Science
File Size : 31. 83 MB
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Evolutionary biomechanics is the study of evolution through the analysis of biomechanical systems. Its unique advantage is the precision with which physical constraints and performance can be predicted from first principles. Instead of reviewing the entire breadth of the biomechanical literature, a few key examples are explored in depth as vehicles for discussing fundamental concepts, analytical techniques, and evolutionary theory. Each chapter develops a conceptual theme, developing the underlying theory and techniques required for analyses in evolutionary biomechanics. Examples from terrestrial biomechanics, metabolic scaling, and bird flight are used to analyse how physics constrains the design space that natural selection is free to explore, and how adaptive evolution finds solutions to the trade-offs between multiple complex conflicting performance objectives. Evolutionary Biomechanics is suitable for graduate level students and professional researchers in the fields of biomechanics, physiology, evolutionary biology and palaeontology. It will also be of relevance and use to researchers in the physical sciences and engineering.

Essential Ornithology

Author : Graham Scott
ISBN : 9780198569985
Genre : Nature
File Size : 46. 1 MB
Format : PDF
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A concise but comprehensive introduction to the biology of birds, one of the most widely studied taxonomic groups. The book starts with the controversial question of the dinosaur origins of birds and their subsequent evolution. Development, anatomy, and physiology are then discussed followed by chapters devoted to avian reproduction, ecology, and behaviour. Sections dealing with aspects of bird/human relationships and bird conservation give the book an appliedcontext.

Ornis Hungarica

Author :
ISBN : CORNELL:31924087398024
Genre : Birds
File Size : 86. 25 MB
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Understanding The Bird Of Prey

Author : Nick Fox
ISBN : 0888393172
Genre : Nature
File Size : 35. 42 MB
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Understanding the Bird of Prey is probably the most comprehensive gathering of data on birds of prey ever assembled. The text is masterfully written in language that is easy to follow by Nick Fox, a leading professional raptor biologist, breeder and falconer. The text covers the biology of birds of prey, their captive management, breeding, training and rehabilitation. All sections have been critically reviewed by top international specialists for scientific accuracy. Over 290 technical drawings and 150 colour photographs aid the reader in the pursuit of understanding birds of prey.

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