autonomic nervous system handbook of clinical neurology

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Autonomic Nervous System

Author : Ruud M. Buijs
ISBN : 9780444534927
Genre : Medical
File Size : 62. 27 MB
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Autonomic Nervous System provides an introduction to the latest science and detailed chapters on advances in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of autonomic system disorders. The autonomic nervous system controls all involuntary actions within the human nervous system. Core body functions regulated by the autonomic system include breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure, body temperature, perspiration, and bowel, bladder and sexual function. Our understanding of the neurotransmitters associated with the autonomic nervous system has expanded over the past 15 years associated with current research efforts and are now impacting the diagnosis and treatment of autonomic nervous system disorders by clinical neurologists. This volume is a valuable companion for neuroscience and clinical neurology researchers and practitioners. A volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, which has an unparalleled reputation as the world's most comprehensive source of information in neurology International list of contributors, including the leading workers in the field Describes the advances that have occurred in clinical neurology and the neurosciences and their impact on the understanding of neurological disorders and on patient care

Handbook Of Clinical Neurology

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ISBN : 0720472008
Genre :
File Size : 75. 95 MB
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Handbook Of Clinical Neurology

Author : P. J. Vinken
ISBN : UOM:39015051304866
Genre : Autonomic nervous system
File Size : 71. 12 MB
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Autonomic Nervous System

Author : Geoffrey Burnstock
ISBN : 9780128079775
Genre : Medical
File Size : 69. 23 MB
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After some early hints, cotransmission was proposed in 1976 and then “chemical coding” later established for sympathetic nerves (noradrenaline/norepinephrine, adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), and neuropeptide Y), parasympathetic nerves (acetylcholine, ATP, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)), enteric nonadrenergic, noncholinergic inhibitory nerves (ATP, nitric oxide, and VIP), and sensory-motor nerves (calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, and ATP). ATP is a primitive signaling molecule that has been retained as a cotransmitter in most, if not all, nerve types in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuropeptides coreleased with small molecule neurotransmitters in autonomic nerves do not usually act as cotransmitters but rather as prejunctional neuromodulators or trophic factors. Autonomic cotransmission offers subtle, local variation in physiological control mechanisms, rather than the dominance of inflexible central control mechanisms envisaged earlier. The variety of information imparted by a single neuron then greatly increases the sophistication and complexity of local control mechanisms. Cotransmitter composition shows considerable plasticity in development and aging, in pathophysiological conditions and following trauma or surgery. For example, ATP appears to become a more prominent cotransmitter in inflammatory and stress conditions.

Diabetes And The Nervous System

Author : Douglas W. Zochodne
ISBN : 9780444635419
Genre : Medical
File Size : 71. 52 MB
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This is a unique compilation, by experts worldwide, addressing how diabetes impacts the nervous system. For example, diabetic polyneuropathy, a disorder more common than MS, Parkinson’s disease, and ALS combined, is a major source of disability to diabetic persons worldwide. This book addresses diabetic polyneuropathy and how diabetes alters other parts of the nervous system. Offers a unique emphasis on the neurological manifestations of diabetes Provides thorough coverage of the clinical, experimental, mechanistic, therapeutic, peripheral, and central aspects of diabetic neuropathy Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available

The Autonomic Nervous System

Author : Otto Appenzeller
ISBN : 0444828125
Genre : Autonomic nervous system
File Size : 64. 80 MB
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The Autonomic Nervous System

Author : Otto Appenzeller
ISBN : 0444828125
Genre : Autonomic nervous system
File Size : 63. 39 MB
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Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Author : Roy Freeman
ISBN : 9780128078389
Genre : Medical
File Size : 59. 35 MB
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Autonomic testing is used to define the role of the autonomic nervous system in diverse clinical and research settings. Because most of the autonomic nervous system is inaccessible to direct physiological testing, in the clinical setting the most widely used techniques entail the assessment of an end-organ response to a physiological provocation. The noninvasive measures of cardiovascular parasympathetic function involve the assessment of heart rate variability while the measures of cardiovascular sympathetic function assess the blood pressure response to physiological stimuli. Tilt-table testing, with or without pharmacological provocation, has become an important tool in the assessment of a predisposition to neurally mediated (vasovagal) syncope, the postural tachycardia syndrome, and orthostatic hypotension. Distal, postganglionic, sympathetic cholinergic (sudomotor) function may be evaluated by provoking axon reflex mediated sweating, e.g., the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex (QSART) or the quantitative direct and indirect axon reflex (QDIRT). The thermoregulatory sweat test provides a nonlocalizing measure of global pre- and postganglionic sudomotor function. Frequency domain analyses of heart rate and blood pressure variability, microneurography, and baroreflex assessment are currently research tools but may find a place in the clinical assessment of autonomic function in the future.

Autonomic Nervous System

Author : Erica A. Wehrwein
ISBN : 9780128079829
Genre : Medical
File Size : 88. 3 MB
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Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is a critical hemodynamic factor. The absence of proper regulation of MAP can have important pathophysiological consequences. Low MAP can cause inadequate blood flow to organs, syncope, and shock. On the other hand, elevated MAP contributes to increased oxygen demand by the heart, ventricular remodeling, vascular injury, end organ damage, and stroke. The arterial baroreflex system is a key controller of MAP and is a complex system. It can be considered in its entirety as an integrative physiological system or in terms of its regulated component parts. Those component parts include MAP, mechanosensory transduction, afferent pathways, central neural circuits, efferent pathways, receptor pharmacology, integration with other key homeostatic inputs, molecular biology, and/or other elements. This chapter provides an overview of each of these individual components but stresses the importance of the integrative nature of this reflex. In addition, this chapter explores common measurement techniques for the baroreflex and explores the baroreflex in diseases.

Autonomic Nervous System

Author : Maria G. Cersosimo
ISBN : 9780128079799
Genre : Medical
File Size : 26. 3 MB
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The central autonomic network includes the insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray, parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, ventrolateral reticular formation of the medulla, and medullary raphe. These areas: are reciprocally interconnected; receive converging visceral and somatosensory information; generate stimulus-specific patterns of autonomic, endocrine, and motor responses; and are regulated according to the behavioral state, including the sleep–wake cycle. Several components of the central autonomic networks are affected in neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the presence of intracellular inclusions containing α-synuclein. These include multiple system atrophy (MSA), characterized by accumulation of glial cytoplasmic inclusions, and Lewy body disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies, and the so-called “pure” autonomic failure. In MSA, involvement of the rostral ventrolateral medulla may be primarily responsible for orthostatic hypotension; involvement in the pontine micturition area, sacral preganglionic nucleus, and Onuf nucleus is responsible for neurogenic bladder; and involvement of the pre-Bötzinger complex and medullary raphe may contribute to sleep-related respiratory abnormalities. In contrast, Lewy body disorders are characterized by early involvement of the enteric nervous system and cardiac sympathetic ganglia. The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus is affected both in MSA and at early stages of PD.

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