an exploration into china s economic development and electricity demand by the year 2050 elsevier insights

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China S Economic Gene Mutations

Author : Zhaoguang Hu
ISBN : 9783662472989
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 70. 20 MB
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The book focuses on low-carbon issues and China’s economy, which is analyzed from the perspective of electricity economics. It proposes the novel concept of an “economic gene” to reflect certain characteristics of the economy. The gene mapping of China’s economy has been studied based on production functions with electricity. Economic mutations have also been studied with the aim of diagnosing problems in the economy. Two such mutations have occurred in China since 1978, the most recent being in 2012 and no further mutation is expected until 2025. The book describes the inherent quality of China’s economy from 2012 to 2025, and how mechanism reforms would greatly improve marginal representative factor productivity in this period. The agents response equilibrium (ARE) approach to simulate national economy, based on multi-agent technology is proposed. Another cornerstone of the model is the input-output table. Simulated input-output tables from 2011 to 2025 are provided in the book. This book provides recommendations for policy makers and advisors, and is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of economics, public policies, low-carbon development, electricity and energy. It also provides insights into China’s economic development.

Electricity Economics Production Functions With Electricity

Author : Zhaoguang Hu
ISBN : 9783642407574
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 31. 42 MB
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Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb–Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications. Dr. Zhaoguang Hu is the vice president and chief energy specialist at the State Grid Energy Research Institute, China. Zheng Hu is a PhD candidate at the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, University of Delaware, USA.

Low Carbon Energy Security From A European Perspective

Author : Patrizia Lombardi
ISBN : 9780128029879
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 85. 57 MB
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Low-Carbon Energy Security from a European Perspective draws on the European Commission‘s funded project MILESECURE-2050. It considers low-carbon energy security and energy geopolitics in Europe, with a focus on four thematic clusters: challenging the energy security paradigm; climate change and energy security objectives (the components of a secure and low-carbon energy system); energy security in a geopolitical perspective, as it relates to economics, resource competition, and availability; and the influence of large scale renewable energy projects on energy security and shifting geopolitical alliances. An overarching narrative is that optimizing the energy system simultaneously across different objectives may be impossible, i.e., lowest cost, least environmental impact, minimal downtime, regional supply. This book explores these charged topics through insights from a series of novel, new energy project case studies, and demonstrates the need for difficult political conversations within Europe and beyond by posing fundamental yet new questions about the energy security paradigm. Offers a unique perspective on low-carbon energy security by considering the assumptions behind current energy security needs Suggests the benefit of envisioning energy security through out-of-the-box scenario development with respect to the energy system Includes energy in an international scenario with case studies from Africa, Russia, Ukraine, Morroco, China, South America, and Europe Draws on the European Commission‘s funded project MILESECURE-2050

Solar Energy Perspectives

Author : Cédric Philibert
ISBN : MINN:31951D03399920D
Genre : Solar energy
File Size : 56. 97 MB
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In 90 minutes, enough sunlight strikes the earth to provide the entire planet's energy needs for one year. While solar energy is abundant, it represents a tiny fraction of the world's current energy mix. But this is changing rapidly and is being driven by global action to improve energy access and supply security, and to mitigate climate change. Around the world, countries and companies are investing in solar generation capacity on an unprecedented scale, and, as a consequence, costs continue to fall and technologies improve. This publication gives an authoritative view of these technologies and market trends, in both advanced and developing economies, while providing examples of the best and most advanced practices. It also provides a unique guide for policy makers, industry representatives and concerned stakeholders on how best to use, combine and successfully promote the major categories of solar energy: solar heating and cooling, photovoltaic and solar thermal electricity, as well as solar fuels. Finally, in analysing the likely evolution of electricity and energy-consuming sectors - buildings, industry and transport - it explores the leading role solar energy could play in the long-term future of our energy system.

The British Coal Industry

Author : H. Townshend-Rose
ISBN : 9781351398756
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 42. 17 MB
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Originally published in 1951, this book is a straightforward account of the British nationalized coal industry in the first half of the twentieth century. An introductory chapter gives the history of the industry during the inter-war years and subsequent chapters discuss the complex organization by which coal is marketed at home and overseas. The types and grades of coal and the price structure of the industry are considered. There is a section on finance which explains the capital structure of the industry and statistical charts focus on significant trends in output, man-power, absenteeism, accidents and similar vital features of the coal industry.

Advanced Manufacturing Technology In China A Roadmap To 2050

Author : Tianran Wang
ISBN : 9783642138553
Genre : Science
File Size : 39. 97 MB
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As one of the eighteen field-specific reports comprising the comprehensive scope of the strategic general report of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, this sub-report addresses long-range planning for developing science and technology in the field of advanced manufacturing technology. They each craft a roadmap for their sphere of development to 2050. In their entirety, the general and sub-group reports analyze the evolution and laws governing the development of science and technology, describe the decisive impact of science and technology on the modernization process, predict that the world is on the eve of an impending S&T revolution, and call for China to be fully prepared for this new round of S&T advancement. Based on the detailed study of the demands on S&T innovation in China’s modernization, the reports draw a framework for eight basic and strategic systems of socio-economic development with the support of science and technology, work out China’s S&T roadmaps for the relevant eight basic and strategic systems in line with China’s reality, further detail S&T initiatives of strategic importance to China’s modernization, and provide S&T decision-makers with comprehensive consultations for the development of S&T innovation consistent with China’s reality. Supported by illustrations and tables of data, the reports provide researchers, government officials and entrepreneurs with guidance concerning research directions, the planning process, and investment. Founded in 1949, the Chinese Academy of Sciences is the nation’s highest academic institution in natural sciences. Its major responsibilities are to conduct research in basic and technological sciences, to undertake nationwide integrated surveys on natural resources and ecological environment, to provide the country with scientific data and consultations for government’s decision-making, to undertake government-assigned projects with regard to key S&T problems in the process of socio-economic development, to initiate personnel training, and to promote China’s high-tech enterprises through its active engagement in these areas.

Independent Power Projects In Sub Saharan Africa

Author : Anton Eberhard
ISBN : 9781464808012
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 23. 84 MB
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Inadequate electricity services pose a major impediment to reducing extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Simply put, Africa does not have enough power. Despite the abundant low-carbon and low-cost energy resources available to Sub-Saharan Africa, the region s entire installed electricity capacity, at a little over 80 GW, is equivalent to that of the Republic of Korea. Looking ahead, Sub-Saharan Africa will need to ramp-up its power generation capacity substantially. The investment needed to meet this goal largely exceeds African countries already stretched public finances. Increasing private investment is critical to help expand and improve electricity supply. Historically, most private sector finance has been channeled through privately financed independent power projects (IPP), supported by nonrecourse or limited recourse loans, with long-term power purchase agreements with the state utility or another off-taker. Between 1990 and 2014, IPPs have spread across Sub-Saharan Africa and are now present in 17 countries. Currently, there are 125 IPPs, with an overall installed capacity of 10.7 GW and investments of $24.6 billion. However, private investment could be much greater and less concentrated. South Africa alone accounts for 67 IPPs, 4.3 GW of capacity and $14.4 billion of investments; the remaining projects are concentrated in a handful of countries. The objective of this study is to evaluate the experience of IPPs and identify lessons that can help African countries attract more and better private investment. At the core of this analysis is a reflection on whether IPPs have in fact benefited Sub-Saharan Africa, and how they might be improved. The analysis is based primarily on in depth case studies, carried out in five countries, including Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda, which not only have the most numerous but also among the most extensive experience with IPPs.

Issues In Environmental Law Policy And Planning 2011 Edition

Author :
ISBN : 9781464964688
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 59. 95 MB
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Issues in Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning. The editors have built Issues in Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Environmental Law, Policy, and Planning: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Building Industries At Sea Blue Growth And The New Maritime Economy

Author : Kate Johnson
ISBN : 9788793609266
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 29 MB
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Throughout the world there is evidence of mounting interest in marine resources and new maritime industries to create jobs, economic growth and to help in the provision of energy and food security. Expanding populations, insecurity of traditional sources of supply and the effects of climate change add urgency to a perceived need to address and overcome the serious challenges of working in the maritime environment. Four promising areas of activity for 'Blue Growth' have been identified at European Union policy level including Aquaculture; Renewable Energy (offshore wind, wave and tide); Seabed Mining; and Blue Biotechnology. Work has started to raise the technological and investment readiness levels (TRLs and IRLs) of these prospective industries drawing on the experience of established maritime industries such as Offshore Oil and Gas; Shipping; Fisheries and Tourism. An accord has to be struck between policy makers and regulators on the one hand, anxious to direct research and business incentives in effective and efficient directions, and developers, investors and businesses on the other, anxious to reduce the risks of such potentially profitable but innovative investments. The EU H2020 MARIBE (Marine Investment for the Blue Economy) funded project was designed to identify the key technical and non-technical challenges facing maritime industries and to place them into the social and economic context of the coastal and ocean economy. MARIBE went on to examine with companies, real projects for the combination of marine industry sectors into multi-use platforms (MUPs). The purpose of this book is to publish the detailed analysis of each prospective and established maritime business sector. Sector experts working to a common template explain what these industries are, how they work, their prospects to create wealth and employment, and where they currently stand in terms of innovation, trends and their lifecycle. The book goes on to describe progress with the changing regulatory and planning regimes in the European Sea Basins including the Caribbean where there are significant European interests. The book includes: Experienced chapter authors from a truly multidisciplinary team of sector specialismsFirst extensive study to compare and contrast traditional Blue Economy with Blue GrowthComplementary to EU and National policies for multi-use of maritime space

Wind Power Politics And Policy

Author : Scott Victor Valentine
ISBN : 9780199862726
Genre : Science
File Size : 73. 14 MB
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The wind power development policy community faces a conundrum. On the one hand, as the most commercially viable form of utility-scale renewable energy, the wind power industry has experienced in excess of ten-fold growth in total installed capacity over the past decade. On the other hand, installed wind power capacity still accounts for less than 2% of global electricity-generation capacity, despite the prevalence of studies indicating that, in certain situations, wind power can be a cheaper form of electricity than most fossil fuel alternatives. Accordingly, the most puzzling aspect of wind power development policy can be summed up in the following manner: given the global imperative to facilitate an expedient transition away from CO2-intensive energy technologies and the commercial viability of wind power, what is stopping the wind power industry from capturing higher market shares around the world? In Wind Power Politics and Policy, Scott Valentine examines this question from two angles. First, it presents an analysis of social, technical, economic and political (STEP) barriers which research shows tends to stymie wind power development. Case studies which examine phlegmatic wind power development in Japan, Taiwan, Australia and Canada are presented in order to demonstrate to the reader how these barriers manifest themselves in practice. Second, the book presents an analysis of STEP catalysts which have been linked to successful growth of wind power capacity in select nations. Four more case studies that examine the successful development of wind power in Denmark, Germany, the USA and China are put forth as practical examples of how supportive factors conflate to produce conditions that are conducive to growth of wind power markets. By examining its impediments and catalysts, the book will provide policymakers with insight into the types of factors that must be effectively managed in order to maximize wind power development.

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