an education in politics the origins and evolution of no child left behind american institutions and society

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An Education In Politics

Author : Jesse H. Rhodes
ISBN : 9780801464669
Genre : Education
File Size : 57. 17 MB
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Since the early 1990s, the federal role in education—exemplified by the controversial No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)—has expanded dramatically. Yet states and localities have retained a central role in education policy, leading to a growing struggle for control over the direction of the nation’s schools. In An Education in Politics, Jesse H. Rhodes explains the uneven development of federal involvement in education. While supporters of expanded federal involvement enjoyed some success in bringing new ideas to the federal policy agenda, Rhodes argues, they also encountered stiff resistance from proponents of local control. Built atop existing decentralized policies, new federal reforms raised difficult questions about which level of government bore ultimate responsibility for improving schools. Rhodes’s argument focuses on the role played by civil rights activists, business leaders, and education experts in promoting the reforms that would be enacted with federal policies such as NCLB. It also underscores the constraints on federal involvement imposed by existing education policies, hostile interest groups, and, above all, the nation’s federal system. Indeed, the federal system, which left specific policy formation and implementation to the states and localities, repeatedly frustrated efforts to effect changes: national reforms lost their force as policies passed through iterations at the state, county, and municipal levels. Ironically, state and local resistance only encouraged civil rights activists, business leaders, and their political allies to advocate even more stringent reforms that imposed heavier burdens on state and local governments. Through it all, the nation’s education system made only incremental steps toward the goal of providing a quality education for every child.

A History Of The U S Political System Ideas Interests And Institutions 3 Volumes

Author : Richard A. Harris
ISBN : 9781851097180
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 27. 6 MB
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This reference resource combines unique historical analysis, scholarly essays, and primary source documents to explore the evolution of ideas and institutions that have shaped American government and Americans' political behavior. • Over 50 contributors, including a mix of distinguished and cutting-edge political scientists and historians • Nearly 200 primary sources, including Federalist and Anti-Federalist writings, presidential speeches, and landmark Supreme Court cases • Classic engravings and political cartoons aligned with key periods in American political development • Tables of presidents and congressional leadership and maps showing electoral votes over time • Name and subject indexes for each volume

The Concise Princeton Encyclopedia Of American Political History

Author : Michael Kazin
ISBN : 9781400839469
Genre : History
File Size : 82. 78 MB
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With 150 accessible articles written by more than 130 leading experts, this essential reference provides authoritative introductions to some of the most important and talked-about topics in American history and politics, from the founding to today. Abridged from the acclaimed Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History, this is the only single-volume encyclopedia that provides comprehensive coverage of both the traditional topics of U.S. political history and the broader forces that shape American politics--including economics, religion, social movements, race, class, and gender. Fully indexed and cross-referenced, each entry provides crucial context, expert analysis, informed perspectives, and suggestions for further reading. Contributors include Dean Baker, Lewis Gould, Alex Keyssar, James Kloppenberg, Patricia Nelson Limerick, Lisa McGirr, Jack Rakove, Nick Salvatore, Stephen Skowronek, Jeremi Suri, Julian Zelizer, and many more. Entries cover? Key political periods, from the founding to today Political institutions, major parties, and founding documents The broader forces that shape U.S. politics, from economics, religion, and social movements to race, class, and gender Ideas, philosophies, and movements The political history and influence of geographic regions

No Child Left Behind And The Transformation Of Federal Education Policy 1965 2005

Author : Patrick J. McGuinn
ISBN : UOM:39015064712105
Genre : Education
File Size : 62. 66 MB
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Education is intimately connected to many of the most important and contentious questions confronting American society, from race to jobs to taxes, and the competitive pressures of the global economy have only enhanced its significance. Elementary and secondary schooling has long been the province of state and local governments; but when George W. Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind Act in 2002, it signaled an unprecedented expansion of the federal role in public education. This book provides the first balanced, in-depth analysis of how No Child Left Behind (NCLB) became law. Patrick McGuinn, a political scientist with hands-on experience in secondary education, explains how this happened despite the country's long history of decentralized school governance and the longstanding opposition of both liberals and conservatives to an active, reform-oriented federal role in schools. His book provides the essential political context for understanding NCLB, the controversies surrounding its implementation, and forthcoming debates over its reauthorization. Using education as a case study of national policymaking, MacGuinn also shows how the struggle to define the federal role in school reform took center stage in debates over the appropriate role of the government in promoting opportunity and social welfare. He places the evolution of the federal role in schools within the context of broader institutional, ideological, and political changes that have swept the nation since the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, chronicles the concerns raised by the 1983 report A Nation at Risk, and shows how education became a major campaign issue for both parties in the 1990s. McGuinn arguesthat the emergence of swing issues such as education can facilitate major policy change even as they influence the direction of wider political debates and partisan conflict. McGuinn traces the Republican shift from seeking to eliminate the U.S. Department of Education to embracing federal leadership in school reform, then details the negotiations over NCLB, the forces that shaped its final provisions, and the ways in which the law constitutes a new federal education policy regime--against which states have now begun to rebel. He argues that the expanded federal role in schools is probably here to stay and that only by understanding the unique dynamics of national education politics will reformers be able to craft a more effective national role in school reform.

Reclaiming Education For Democracy

Author : Paul Shaker
ISBN : 9781135597047
Genre : Education
File Size : 31. 82 MB
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Reclaiming Education for Democracy subjects the prophets and doctrines of educational neoliberalism to scrutiny in order to provide a rationale and vision for public education beyond the limits of No Child Left Behind. The authors combine a history of recent education policy with an in- depth analysis of the origins of such policy and its impact on professional educators. The public face of these policies is separated from motives rooted in politics, profit, and ideology. The book also searches for new insights in understanding the neoliberal and managerialist assault on education by examining the psychology of advocates who demonstrate a special animus toward universal public education. The manipulation of public education by No Child Left Behind is a case study in the general approach to public institutions taken by the politicians and theorists in these camps. K-12 education has been subjected to deceptive descriptive analyses, marginalization of its professional leadership, manipulation of its goals, the imposition of illegitimate quality markers, a grab on its resources by corporate profiteers, and a demoralization of its rank and file. This book helps us think beyond this new commonsense of education. Recipient: 2009 AERA Division K Award for Exemplary Research in Teaching and Teacher Education

America S Public Schools

Author : William J. Reese
ISBN : 9781421400167
Genre : Education
File Size : 82. 54 MB
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In this update to his landmark publication, William J. Reese offers a comprehensive examination of the trends, theories, and practices that have shaped America’s public schools over the last two centuries. Reese approaches this subject along two main lines of inquiry—education as a means for reforming society and ongoing reform within the schools themselves. He explores the roots of contemporary educational policies and places modern battles over curriculum, pedagogy, race relations, and academic standards in historical perspective. A thoroughly revised epilogue outlines the significant challenges to public school education within the last five years. Reese analyzes the shortcomings of "No Child Left Behind" and the continued disjuncture between actual school performance and the expectations of government officials. He discusses the intrusive role of corporations, economic models for enticing better teacher performance, the continued impact of conservatism, and the growth of home schooling and charter schools. Informed by a breadth of historical scholarship and based squarely on primary sources, this volume remains the standard text for future teachers and scholars of education.

American Civilization

Author : David Mauk
ISBN : 0415358310
Genre : History
File Size : 57. 5 MB
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Thoroughly revised, this fourth edition of a hugely successful text provides students of American studies with the perfect background and introductory information on contemporary American life. This fourth edition covers all the central dimensions of American society from geography and the environment, government and politics, to religion, education, media and the arts. American Civilization: covers all core American studies topics at introductory level contains essential historical background for American studies students at the start of the twenty-first century analyzes gender, class and race, and America's cosmopolitan population contains photos, case studies, questions and terms for discussion, and suggests websites for further research. With new illustrations and case studies, this edition of American Civilization also examines the second Gulf War, the War on Terror and the 2004 presidential election.

No Child Left Behind And Other Federal Programs For Urban School Districts

Author : Richard C. Hunter
ISBN : 9780762312993
Genre : Education
File Size : 21. 17 MB
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The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is designed to close the achievement gap between disadvantaged and disadvantaged children through its Title I program. Title I provides disadvantaged students with compensatory education. Only Title I schools are required to meet NCLB accountability guidelines but some states apply federal accountability guidelines to non-Title I schools; and states must separate achievement test scores by racial subgroups. The book explores models to achieve equity in Title I schools. The authors define what is required of states in Title I schools. The NCLB guidelines are flexible: states may confine their accountability involvement to Title I schools only and limit the number of Title I schools in their state; states may establish their own standardized tests and establish their own racial subgroups. The authors examine how each state reacts and implements NCLB accountability standards, and challenges to these guidelines in the courts and in the body politics by states. The text examines the achievements of NCLB, and the implications of the Act. The text also reviews implications for a larger immigrant population that did not exist in 1965 when Title I was originally enacted by Congress; and the impact of globalization the educational needs of the country. It explores models to achieve equity under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act.

Studying Your Own School

Author : Gary L. Anderson
ISBN : 9781412940320
Genre : Education
File Size : 83. 15 MB
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Extensively revised, this new edition provides the theoretical underpinnings of practitioner action research as well as the "how-to" information necessary for classroom application.

The Fight For Local Control

Author : Campbell F. Scribner
ISBN : 9781501704109
Genre : History
File Size : 84. 33 MB
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Throughout the twentieth century, local control of school districts was one of the most contentious issues in American politics. As state and federal regulation attempted to standardize public schools, conservatives defended local prerogative as a bulwark of democratic values. Yet their commitment to those values was shifting and selective. In The Fight for Local Control, Campbell F. Scribner demonstrates how, in the decades after World War II, suburban communities appropriated legacies of rural education to assert their political autonomy and in the process radically changed educational law. Scribner's account unfolds on the metropolitan fringe, where rapid suburbanization overlapped with the consolidation of thousands of small rural schools. Rural residents initially clashed with their new neighbors, but by the 1960s the groups had rallied to resist government oversight. What began as residual opposition to school consolidation would transform into campaigns against race-based busing, unionized teachers, tax equalization, and secular curriculum. In case after case, suburban conservatives carved out new rights for local autonomy, stifling equal educational opportunity. Yet Scribner also provides insight into why many conservatives have since abandoned localism for policies that stress school choice and federal accountability. In the 1970s, as new battles arose over unions, textbooks, and taxes, districts on the rural-suburban fringe became the first to assert individual choice in the form of school vouchers, religious exemptions, and a marketplace model of education. At the same time, they began to embrace tax limitation and standardized testing, policies that checked educational bureaucracy but bypassed local school boards. The effect, Scribner concludes, has been to reinforce inequalities between districts while weakening participatory government within them, keeping the worst aspects of local control in place while forfeiting its virtues.

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