accident prone a history of technology psychology and misfits of the machine age

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Accident Prone

Author : John Burnham
ISBN : 9780226081199
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 33. 43 MB
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Technology demands uniformity from human beings who encounter it. People encountering technology, however, differ from one another. Thinkers in the early twentieth century, observing the awful consequences of interactions between humans and machines—death by automobiles or dismemberment by factory machinery, for example—developed the idea of accident proneness: the tendency of a particular person to have more accidents than most people. In tracing this concept from its birth to its disappearance at the end of the twentieth century, Accident Prone offers a unique history of technology focused not on innovations but on their unintended consequences. Here, John C. Burnham shows that as the machine era progressed, the physical and economic impact of accidents coevolved with the rise of the insurance industry and trends in twentieth-century psychology. After World War I, psychologists determined that some people are more accident prone than others. This designation signaled a shift in social strategy toward minimizing accidents by diverting particular people away from dangerous environments. By the 1960s and 1970s, however, the idea of accident proneness gradually declined, and engineers developed new technologies to protect all people, thereby introducing a hidden, but radical, egalitarianism. Lying at the intersection of the history of technology, the history of medicine and psychology, and environmental history, Accident Prone is an ambitious intellectual analysis of the birth, growth, and decline of an idea that will interest anyone who wishes to understand how Western societies have grappled with the human costs of modern life.

Ingenieure In Der Technokratischen Hochmoderne Thomas H Nseroth Zum 60 Geburtstag

Author : Uwe Fraunholz
ISBN : 3830977719
Genre : History
File Size : 78. 75 MB
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Die Jahre zwischen etwa 1880 und 1970 können als einheitliche Epoche der »Technokratischen Hochmoderne« begriffen werden. Verbindendes Element dieser Zeit war die allgemein verbreitete Gewissheit eines stetigen Fortschreitens zum immer Besseren. Das Mittel zu diesem Zweck war eine verwissenschaftlichte Technik, die immer auch außertechnische Probleme zu lösen hatte. Als Träger dieses Fortschrittsversprechens gelang es Ingenieuren ihre partikularen Interessen in eine weithin akzeptierte Altruismusformel zu transzendieren. Wie haben sich das technisierte Fortschrittsversprechen der Hochmoderne und die Selbst- und Fremdbilder der Ingenieure wechselseitig ermöglicht, bestärkt und stabilisiert? Die Autoren dieses Bandes nähern sich einer Beantwortung dieser Frage, indem sie u.a. die Herausbildung technokratischen Denkens, Rationalisierungsdiskurse und technische Visionen, die Ingenieurskultur in der DDR aber auch technisches Scheitern und Katastrophen in den Blick nehmen. Die Herausgeber Uwe Fraunholz ist wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter im SFB 804 »Transzendenz und Gemeinsinn« an der TU Dresden. Sylvia Wölfel ist wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Lehrstuhl für Technik- und Technikwissenschaftsgeschichte der TU Dresden.

Command And Control

Author : Eric Schlosser
ISBN : 9783406655968
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 79. 6 MB
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Arkansas, 18. September 1980, abends: Bei Routinearbeiten an einer gefechtsbereiten Titan-II-Rakete rutscht einem Arbeiter ein Schraubenschlüssel aus der Hand. »O Mann, das ist nicht gut”, ist sein erster Gedanke. Das Missgeschick führt zu einer Kettenreaktion, der größte je gebaute Atomsprengkopf droht zu explodieren ... Weltweit sind Tausende von Atomsprengköpfen stationiert. Viele von ihnen werden rund um die Uhr gefechtsbereit gehalten, damit sie innerhalb einer Minute starten und eine unvorstellbare Verwüstung anrichten können. Was das für die Soldaten in den unterirdischen Bunkern heißt und welche Gefahren von den scharfen Atomwaffen ausgehen, ist uns kaum bewusst. Der Journalist und Bestseller-Autor Eric Schlosser deckt in diesem zeithistorischen Thriller auf der Grundlage von geheimen Unterlagen des Verteidigungsministeriums und Interviews mit Augenzeugen einen dramatischen Unfall in einem Atomwaffensilo der USA auf, der um ein Haar mehrere amerikanische Großstädte vernichtet hätte. In diesen Krimi einer am Ende gerade noch gelungenen Rettung flicht er die Geschichte der amerikanischen Atomrüstung ein. Er erzählt, wie Raketen und Sprengköpfe rund um die Uhr abschussbereit gehalten werden und wie die Menschen ticken, die ihr Leben für die Sicherheit der Massenvernichtungswaffen einsetzen. Eine spektakuläre Geschichte des Kalten Krieges und der Atomrüstung «von unten»: aus der Sicht der Soldaten in den Silos, die mit einem falschen Handgriff die Apokalypse auslösen können. «Atemberaubend, ... mitreißend ... Eric Schlosser verbindet profunde Informationen mit der Erzählung haarsträubender Details zu zahlreichen Unfällen und zeigt, dass auch die besten Kontrollsysteme nicht menschlichen Fehlern, Missgeschicken und der wachsenden technologischen Komplexität gewachsen sind.» Publisher’s Weekly »Ebenso anschaulich wie erschütternd ... Eine umfassende und beunruhigende Untersuchung über die Illusion der Sicherheit von Atomwaffen.” Kirkus Reviews «Die weltweiten Atwomwaffenarsenale sind nicht so sicher, wie sie sein sollten – das ist die Botschaft dieses faszinierenden und aufwühlenden Buches.» Lee H. Hamilton, ehemaliger Kongress-Abgeordneter der USA und Co-Vorsitzender der Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future

Risk

Author : Arwen Mohun
ISBN : 9781421407906
Genre : Health & Fitness
File Size : 62. 22 MB
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"Risk" is a capacious term used to describe the uncertainties that arise from physical, financial, political, and social activities. Practically everything we do carries some level of risk—threats to our bodies, property, and animals. How do we determine when the risk is too high? In considering this question, Arwen P. Mohun offers a thought-provoking study of danger and how people have managed it from pre-industrial and industrial America up until today. Mohun outlines a vernacular risk culture in early America, one based on ordinary experience and common sense. The rise of factories and machinery eventually led to shocking accidents, which, she explains, risk-management experts and the "gospel of safety" sought to counter. Finally, she examines the simultaneous blossoming of risk-taking as fun and the aggressive regulations that follow from the consumer-products-safety movement. Risk and society, a rapidly growing area of historical research, interests sociologists, psychologists, and other social scientists. Americans have learned to tame risk in both the workplace and the home. Yet many of us still like amusement park rides that scare the devil out of us; they dare us to take risks.

Governing Risks In Modern Britain

Author : Tom Crook
ISBN : 9781137467454
Genre : History
File Size : 85. 44 MB
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For more than 200 years, everyday life in Britain has been beset by a variety of dangers, from the mundane to the life-threatening. Governing Risks in Modern Britain focuses on the steps taken to manage these dangers and to prevent accidents since approximately 1800. It brings together cutting-edge research to help us understand the multiple and contested ways in which dangers have been governed. It demonstrates that the category of ‘risk’, broadly defined, provides a new means of historicising some key developments in British society. Chapters explore road safety and policing, environmental and technological dangers, and occupational health and safety. The book thus brings together practices and ideas previously treated in isolation, situating them in a common context of risk-related debates, dilemmas and difficulties. Doing so, it argues, advances our understanding of how modern British society has been governed and helps to set our risk-obsessed present in some much needed historical perspective.

After Freud Left

Author : John Burnham
ISBN : 9780226081397
Genre : Psychology
File Size : 44. 53 MB
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From August 29 to September 21, 1909, Sigmund Freud visited the United States, where he gave five lectures at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. This volume brings together a stunning gallery of leading historians of psychoanalysis and of American culture to consider the broad history of psychoanalysis in America and to reflect on what has happened to Freud’s legacy in the United States in the century since his visit. There has been a flood of recent scholarship on Freud’s life and on the European and world history of psychoanalysis, but historians have produced relatively little on the proliferation of psychoanalytic thinking in the United States, where Freud’s work had monumental intellectual and social impact. The essays in After Freud Left provide readers with insights and perspectives to help them understand the uniqueness of Americans’ psychoanalytic thinking, as well as the forms in which the legacy of Freud remains active in the United States in the twenty-first century. After Freud Left will be essential reading for anyone interested in twentieth-century American history, general intellectual and cultural history, and psychology and psychiatry.

Health Care In America

Author : John C. Burnham
ISBN : 9781421416083
Genre : Medical
File Size : 76. 73 MB
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In Health Care in America, historian John C. Burnham describes changes over four centuries of medicine and public health in America. Beginning with seventeenth-century concerns over personal and neighborhood illnesses, Burnham concludes with the arrival of a new epoch in American medicine and health care at the turn of the twenty-first century. From the 1600s through the 1990s, Americans turned to a variety of healers, practices, and institutions in their efforts to prevent and survive epidemics of smallpox, yellow fever, cholera, influenza, polio, and AIDS. Health care workers in all periods attended births and deaths and cared for people who had injuries, disabilities, and chronic diseases. Drawing on primary sources, classic scholarship, and a vast body of recent literature in the history of medicine and public health, Burnham finds that traditional healing, care, and medicine dominated the United States until the late nineteenth century, when antiseptic/aseptic surgery and germ theory initiated an intellectual, social, and technical transformation. He divides the age of modern medicine into several eras: physiological medicine (1910s–1930s), antibiotics (1930s–1950s), technology (1950s–1960s), environmental medicine (1970s–1980s), and, beginning around 1990, genetic medicine. The cumulating developments in each era led to today’s radically altered doctor-patient relationship and the insistent questions that swirl around the financial cost of health care. Burnham’s sweeping narrative makes sense of medical practice, medical research, and human frailties and foibles, opening the door to a new understanding of our current concerns.

The British National Bibliography

Author : Arthur James Wells
ISBN : STANFORD:36105211722678
Genre : English literature
File Size : 34. 13 MB
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Geschr Pft Und Zur Ader Gelassen

Author : Roy Porter
ISBN : 9783908778684
Genre : Medical
File Size : 34. 47 MB
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Geschröpft und zur Ader gelassen erkundet die vielfältige, oftmals seltsame und manchmal schauerliche Art und Weise, in der die Menschen über die Jahrhunderte hinweg versucht haben, Krankheiten zu bekämpfen. Roy Porter, weltweit einer der renommiertesten Medizinhistoriker, verschafft uns mit profunder Sachkenntnis und tiefgründigem Humor einen Überblick über die Geschichte der Medizin.

Entstehung Und Entwicklung Einer Wissenschaftlichen Tatsache

Author : Ludwik Fleck
ISBN : STANFORD:36105002118243
Genre : Science
File Size : 24. 89 MB
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